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What unit is used for mass, volume, and length? What state of matter is each of these for?
- Grams for mass, measures solids
- Liters for volume, measures liquid
- Meters for length
What unit would you use to measure a pencil and the LI expressway?
- Pencil - centimeters
- LI Expressway - kilometers
Define the scientific method and provide the steps.
- Scientific Method: Procedure used to solve problems and answer questions.
- 1) State the problem
- 2) Gather information
- 3) Observe
- 4) Make a hypothesis
- 5) Experiment
- 6) Analyze data
- 7) Form a conclusion
What are: an Independent Variable, Dependent Variable, and a control?
- Independent Variable - Doesn’t change, can stand alone. Example - Smoking, cigarettes
- Dependent Variable - Changes in an experiment, cannot stand alone. Example - Cancer, lung disease
- Control - Something that remains the same throughout an experiment. It is also a means of comparison in an experiment.
How do scientists measure?
With the Metric System.
What do the Triple Beam Balance, Graduated Cylinder, and Meter Stick use and what do they measure?
- Triple beam balance uses mass, measures in grams.
- Graduated cylinder uses volume, measures in milliliters.
- Meter stick uses length, measures in meters (m, cm, and mm.)
What is the eyepiece on a microscope? What are the Fine Adjustment and Coarse Adjustment knobs? What are Stage Clips?
- Eye piece - Where you look through.
- Coarse Adjustment - brings focus.
- Fine Adjustment - brings sharpness.
- Stage Clips - Where the slide goes.
- Practice labeling the parts here - http://www.biologycorner.com/microquiz/
How do you determine total magnification?
- Multiply (eyepiece lens) by the (objective lens).
- For example, if the eyepiece lens is 10, and the objective is 40, the total magnification is 400.
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
- Animal cells are round (irregularly shaped) and plant cells are rectangular shaped.
- Animal cells don’t have chloroplasts, but plant cells do.
- Animal cells don’t have a cell wall, but plant cells do.
- Animal cells don’t have a large vacuole, plants do.
Size Small to Large (Cell to Organism)
Cells, Tissues, Organs, Organ System, Organism
What is The Cell Cycle and What is a Chromosome?
- Cell Cycle - Cycle of growth and Asexual reproduction of a cell.
- Chromosome - Structure in a cell’s nucleus that contains hereditary material.
What are the Phases and Results of Mitosis?
- Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
- Remember with Interested Pedophiles Make A Trap.
- Results - You get two identical body cells.
Define Asexual Reproduction.
Asexual Reproduction - Involves Mitosis, One Parent, Offspring grow from body cells, offspring have identical chromosomes.
What are 3 types of Asexual Reproduction? Give 3 examples and define them.
- Budding - A new, genetically identical organism grows out of the body of its parent. Ex. Yeast
- Regeneration - If a piece of a parent is detached, it can grow into a completely new organism.
- Binary Fission - Splitting into two organisms approximately equal in size.
Define Sexual Reproduction.
- Two sex cells, usually a sperm and an egg, come together.
- Characteristics: Involves Meiosis, 2 parents, sex cells combine to form zygote, diff
What are the Chromosome Numbers of humans?
- Body Cells - Diploid. (In humans, it’s 46)
- Sex Cells - Haploid. (Haploid = Half, so in humans, it’s 23)
Define fertilization and zygote.
- Fertilization - The joining of a sperm and egg.
- Zygote - A cell that forms from fertilization.
Define Chromosome, Gene, and Centromere.
- Chromosome - Structure in cell’s nucleus that contains hereditary material.
- Gene - Section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins.
- Centromere - Region joining two parts of chromosome.
What is Photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts of the leaves, so the plants can make food.
What is Cellular Respiration?
Cellular Respiration takes place in Mitochondria, so organisms can have energy.
What is Fermentation?
Fermentation is when cells that lack oxygen release small amounts of energy from glucose.
The scientific study of heredity.
What is the difference of sex cells in males and females?
Males have XY, Females have XX.
What did Watson and Crick describe DNA as?
A double helix.
List and Pair off DNA Nitrogen Bases.
- Adenine = Thymine
- Thymine = Adenine
- Guanine = Cytosine
- Cytosine = Guanine
- Two sides are Phosphate and Sugar-Deoxyribose
What are nucleotides?
DNA Nitrogen Bases.
How does DNA replication occur?
Double helix unzips because enzymes split the bonds between nitrogen bases and free nucleotides attach to the original strands.
Define Heteozygous and Homozygous.
- Heterozygous: An organism with two different alleles for a different trait.
- Homozygous: An organism with two different alleles for the same trait.
What is a carrier?
An organism that has a gene but the gene has no effect on them.
What is a Genotype, a Phenotype, and a Pedigree Chart?
- Genotype: Genetic make up of an organism.
- Phenotype: Physical make up of an organism.
- Pedigree Chart: a chart showing ancestral line and genetic diseases within that ancestral line
How is Natural Selection occuring today with bacteria?
If you take anti-biotics, some bacteria may be immune, eventually making the entire population immune.
What was Charles Darwin's theory?
How did Darwin study Galopagos Finches?
Darwin studied how each island had a slight variation on the finches.
What are causes of species variations?
Changes in surroundings.
What are substances, elements, and compounds?
- Substance - A type of matter with a fixed composition
- Element - All the atoms in a substance are the same
- Compound - Two or more substances combined that create one inseparable substance.
What is a mixture?
Two or more substances combined that can be separated.
What is a solution, a homogenous mixture, and a heterogenous mixture?
- Homogenous - Evenly blended substances.
- Solution - A homogenous mixture with particles so small they can’t be seen and will never settle.
- Heterogenous - A mixture in which you can’t clearly see different parts.
What is a colloid and what is the Tyndall Effect?
- Colloid - Partially visible particles that will never settle.
- Tyndall effect - The scattering of light by colloidal particles.
What are the four states of matter? Define each.
- Solids - A state of matter whose molecules are packed tightly together. They have a definite volume and shape (usually hard).
- Liquids - State of matter with definite volue but no fixed shape, molecules packed less tightly than a solid.
- Gas - State of matter with low density and no definite mass, shape, or volume.
- Plasma - 4th state of matter, ionize (adding or removing charged particles). Similar to gas.
What is Heat of Fusion, Heat of Vaporization, Exothermic, and Thermal Expansion?
- Heat of fusion - the amount of heat needed to convert a solid to its melting point; into a liquid without an increase in temperature.
- Heat of vaporization - amount of heat needed to convert a liquid to a gas.
- Exothermic - When heat leaves.
- Thermal expansion - the tendency of matter to change volume in response to a change in temperature.
What is in a nucleus?
Protons and neutrons are in here.
What is the difference between an Atomic Number and the Atomic Mass/Mass Number?
- Atomic Number - The number of protons or electrons in an element.
- Atomic Mass / Mass Number - Protons + Neutrons (everything in nucleus), you can round up or down.
What is the difference between Groups and Periods?
- Groups - vertical rows, have similar characteristics.
- Periods - Horizontal rows.
What are Valence Electrons?
Outermost layer of electrons, goes by group number: G1 = 1 valence, 13 = 3, 14 = 4, etc.
What are the names for: Group 1, Group 2, Groups 3 - 12, Group 17, and Group 18 on the periodic table?
- Alkali metals - Group 1 on the periodic table.
- Alkali earth metals - Group 2 on the table.
- Transition metals - Groups 3-12
- Halogens - Group 17
- Noble Gasses - Group 18
What is an Isotope?
Atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons.
What are some trends of the periodic table?
1) metals toward the left, 2) gasses toward the right, 3) valence electrons go by group, 4) as you go down you get a larger mass.
What is bonding?
When 2 elements chemically combine.
What is speed, velocity, and acceleration?
- Speed - distance an object travels per unit time. Speed = Distance over Time.
- Velocity - The speed of an object and the direction of its motion.
- Acceleration - The rate of change of the velocity of an object.
What are Newton's 3 Laws?
- 1: Inertia - The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion.
- 2: Force = Mass x Acceleration
- 3: For every Action, there is an equal Reaction