Chemistry 2 Final
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Where are the Noble gases found?
Far right. Elements He-Rn.
Where are the alkali metals found?
Far left elements Li-Fr.
Where are the Alkaline-earth metals found?
Far left, second column, elements Be-Ra.
Where are the transition metals found?
Where are the Halogens found?
Far right, next to the Noble gases. Elements F-Uus.
What are the properties of a metal?
An element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well.
What are the properties of a Halogen gas?
They combine with most metals to form salts.
What are the properties of a Noble gas?
They are unreactive.
What is an oxidation number?
The number of electrons that must be added to or removed from an atom in a combined state to convert the atom into the elemental form.
Where are the s-block elements located?
The first two families/columns.
Where are the p block elements?
In group 13-18 and period 2-7.
Where are the d block elements found?
Group 3-12 period 4-7.
What are the properties of an alkaline-earth metal?
They contain a pair of electrons in their outermost s sublevel. They are harder, denser, and stronger than the alkai metals. They have high melting points.
What are the properties of alkali metals?
They have a silvery appearance and are soft enough to cut with a knife. Very reactive.
How many electrons can each sublevel hold?
What are the properties of the transition metals?
They are good conductors of electricity and have a high luster.
What is a covalent bond?
A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
What is an ionic bond?
A force that attracts electrons from one atom to another, which transforms a neutral atom into a ion.
What is metallic bonding?
The chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons.
What is malleability?
The ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets.
What is ductility?
The ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire.
What is the H in the HONC rule?
- H-hydrogen, halogens, alkali metals
- -makes only 1 bond
- -never a central atom
- -alkali metals with Li
- -Halogens start with F
What is C in the HONC rule?
- C-Carbon's group
- .makes 4 bonds
- -2 double
- -4 single
- -triple and single
- -no unshared pair
What does the O stand for in the HONC rule?
- O-Oxygen's group
- .makes 2 bonds
- -double bond
- -2 single
- -2 unshared pairs of electrons
What is the N in HONC rule?
- N-Nitrogen's group
- .Makes 3 bonds
- -double and a single
- -3 single
- -1 unshared pair of electrons
What is the molar mass of a substance?
The mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance.
What is percentage composition?
- The percentage ny mass of each element in a compound.
- EX. NH3
- Total AMU'S: 1xN= 14
- + 3xH=3 17.0
- 14/17 *100%= 82%
- 3/17*100%= + 18%
Why do you need a balanced equation?
Because the equation gives the relative numbers of moles of reactants and products. They give amounts of reactants and products under ideal conditions.
What is composition stoichiometry?
It deals with the mass relationships of elements in compounds.
What is reaction stoichiometry?
It involves the mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
What do the coefficients in an equation mean?
It is the mole ratio which is a conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction.
What are you trying to show in a limiting reactant problem?
The element that is going to run out.
What is percent yield?
- Percent yield=actual yield x100% =
- theoretical yield
What is a mole-to-mole problem?
Amount of given substance (mol) x mol unknown/mo given =amount of unknown substance (mol)
What is a mass-mass problem?
Mass of given substance (g) x 1mol given/molar mass of given (g) x mol unknown/mol given x molar mass of unknown (g)/ 1 mol unknown= mass of unknown substance (g)
What is a mass-mole problem?
Mass of given substance (g) x 1 mol given/molar mass of given (g) x mol unknown/ mol given = amount of unknown substance (mol)
What is Ideal Gas Law?
- -An imaginary gas whose particles are infinitely small and do not interact with each other.
- n=number of moles
- r=moles/lit. x kelvin
- r=ideal gas constant 0.0843
What is Boyle's Law?
-States that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the volume of the gas increases as the pressure of the gas deceases as the pressure of the gas increases.
What is Charles Law?
-States that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increase as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases.
What is Dalton's Law?
What is combined gas law?
The relationship between the pressure, volume, and temperature of a fixed amount of gas.
What does soluble mean?
Capable of being dissolved.
What is a solution?
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase.
What does solvent mean?
The dissolving medium in a solution.
What does solute mean?
The substance dissolved in a solution.
What is suspension?
If the particles in a solvent are so large that they settle out unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated.
What does colloids mean?
Particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions form mixtures known as colloidal dispersions.
What does electrolyte mean?
A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts an electric current.
What does nonelectrolyte mean?
A liquid or solid substance or mixture that does not allow an electric current.
What is solution equilibrium?
The physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates.
What is a saturated solution?
A solution that cannot dissolve any more solute under the given conditions.
What is an unsaturated solution?
A solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution does and that is able to dissolve additional solute.
What is a supersaturated solution?
A solution that holds more dissolved solute than is required to reach equilibrium at a given temperature.
What is solubility?
The ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure; expressed in terms of the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent to produce a saturated solution.
What is hydration?
The strong affinity of water molecules for particles of dissolved or suspended substances that causes electrolytic dissociation.
What is immiscible?
It describes two or more liquids that do not mix with each other.
What is miscible?
It describes two or more liquids that can dissolve into each other in various proportions.
What is Henry's Law?
The law that states that at constant temperature. the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas on the surface of the liquid.
What is effervescence?
A bubbling of a liquid caused by the rapid escape of a gas rather than by boiling.
What is solvated?
It describes a solute molecule that is surrounded by solvent molecules.
What is enthalpy of solution?
The amount of energy released or absorbed as heat when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent.
What is concentration?
The amount of a particular substance in a given quantity of a mixture, solution, or ore.
What is molality?
The concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
What is molarity?
A concentration unit of a solution expressed as moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution.
What are the characteristics of an acid?
Aqueous solutions of aids have a sour taste, acids change the color of acid-base indicators, some acids react with active metals and release hydrogen gas, acids react with bases to produce salts and water, and acids conduct electric current.
What are the properties of a base?
Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter, bases change the color of acid-base indicators, dilute aqueous solution of bases feel slippery, bases react with acids to produce salts and water, and bases conduct electric current.
What is neutralization?
The reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules in an aqueous solution.
What do neutralization reactions produce?
Water and salt.
When will something dissolve?
When something is nonpolar and nonpolar or polar and polar.
When does something not dissolve?
When it is nonpolar and polar. It is like water and oil-they do not mix.
What is precipitate?
A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution.
What is velocity?
The speed of something in a given direction.
What is Graham's law of effusion?
The law that states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas's density.
What does 0 K mean?
What is condensation?
The change of state from a gas to a liquid.
What is sublimation?
The process in which a solid changes directly into a gas (the term is sometimes also used for the reverse process)
What is melting point?
The temperature and pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid.
What is freezing point?
The temperature at which a solid and liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm pressure; the temperature at which a liquid substance freezes.
What is boiling point?
The temperature and pressure at which a liquid and a gas are in equilibrium.
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