Psy 110.6

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Psy 110.6
2012-06-14 17:49:04

Chapter 6
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  1. The ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more.
    Eidetic Imagery
  2. A method of transferring information from the STM into the LTM by making that information meaningful in some way.
    Elaborative Rehearsal
  3. Psychologist working on memory and how it can be influenced, she is know for her work with false memories.
    Elizabeth Loftus
  4. The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems.
  5. Failure to process information into memory.
    Enclosing Failure
  6. The tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information (such as surroundings or physiological state) available when the memory is first formed is also available when the memory is being retireved.
    Encoding Specificity
  7. Type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events.
    Episodic Memory
  8. The most common form of dementia in elderly people, leads to severe cognitive loss due to the deterioration of brain tissue.
    Alzheimer's Disease
  9. Disorder characterized by severe memory loss.
  10. Loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories.
    Anterograde Amneisa
  11. Tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little or not effortful encoding.
    Automatic Encoding
  12. The process of regrouping material in memory in order to combine smaller pieces into one larger unit.
  13. The ability to focus our listening attention on a single conversation among a large amount of background noise.
    Cocktail Party Effect
  14. The changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when an engram is formed.
  15. Referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised or influenced by newer information.
    Constructive Processing
  16. A graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually.
    Curve of Forgetting
  17. Loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used.
  18. Type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known.
    Declarative Memory
  19. Spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods.
    Distributed Practice
  20. Another term to describe memory decay which suggests that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear.
  21. The brief memory of something a person has just heard.
    Echoic Memory
  22. A condition in which a person has a memory that is ojectively false but strongly believed to be true.
    False Memory Syndrome
  23. Memory that is consiously known, such as declarative memory.
    Explicit Memory
  24. Error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory.
    False Positive
  25. Type of automatic encloding the occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it.
    Flashbulb Memory
  26. 1920-Present. Published a paper in 1956 called "The Magical number seven plus or minus two" which described the capacity of short-term memory without rehearsal.
    George Miller
  27. Psychologist who first studied iconic memory and discovered the duration of iconic memory is around half a second.
    George Sperling
  28. Famous patient who lost the ability to formnew memories after surgical removal of his hippocampi.
  29. German psychologist who was a pioneer in the study of human memory. Made extensuve use of nonsense syllables in his studies.
    Herman Ebbinghause
  30. The tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include newer information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event.
    Hindsight Bias
  31. Visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second.
    Iconic Memory
  32. Memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness, such as procedural memory.
    Implicit Memory
  33. The inability to retrieve memories from much before the age of 3.
    Infantile Amnesia
  34. Model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory, in a series of 3 stages.
    Information-Processing Model
  35. Model of memory that assumes information that is more "deeply processed", or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characters of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time.
    Levels-Of-Processing Model
  36. The system of memory into which all the information is placed to bekep more or less permanently.
    Long-Term Memory
  37. Practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one's head in order to maintain it is short-term memory.
    Maintenance Rehearsal
  38. An active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it stores it away and then retrieves the informtion from storage.
  39. Physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed.
    Memory Trace or Engram
  40. The tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memroies of the event itself.
    Misinformation Effect
  41. Consonant-vowel-consonant combinations that can be pronounced but have to semantic meaning.
    Nonsense Syllables
  42. A model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time, over a large network of neural connections.
    Parallel Distributed Processing Model
  43. Tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than the information that follows.
    Primacy Effect
  44. Memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information.
    Proactive Interference
  45. Type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits and conditioned resonses. These memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior.
    Prodecural (Nondeclarative) Memory
  46. Type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be "pulled" from memory with very few external clues.
  47. Tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information ahead of it.
    Recency Effect
  48. The ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact.
  49. Getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used.
  50. A stimulus for remembering.
    Retrieval Cue
  51. Memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents to interfers with the retrieval of older information.
    Retroactive Interference
  52. Loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or lost of memory for the past.
    Retrograde Amnesia
  53. The ability to focus on only one sitmulus from among all sensory input.
    Selective Attention
  54. Type of declarative memory containing general knowledge, such as knowledge of language and information learned in normal education.
    Semantic Memory
  55. Model of memory organization which assumes that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion, with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related.
    Semantic Network Model
  56. The very first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems.
    Sensory Memory
  57. Tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information.
    Serial Position Effect
  58. The memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used.
    Short-Term (Working) Memory
  59. The ability to retrieve information more readily when a person is in the same emotional state they were in when the information was learned.
    State-Dependent Learning
  60. Holding onto information for some period of time.