chapter 2

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chapter 2
2012-06-12 23:05:13

chapter 2
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  1. ion
    a positively or negatively charged atom
  2. molecule
    two or more atoms who share electrons
  3. compound
    contains two or more different elements
  4. free radical
    is an electrically charged atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in its valence shell.
  5. chemical bonds:
    the forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule or compound
  6. ionic bonds
    the force of attraction that holds together ions with opposite charges. one gives an electron the other accepts
  7. cation
    positively charged ion
  8. annion
    negatively charged ion
  9. electrolyte
    an ionic compound that breaks apart onto positive and negative ions in a solution
  10. covalent bond
    two or more atoms share electrons rather than gaining or losing them
  11. hydrogen bonds
    forms when a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge attracts the partial negative charge of neighboring electronegative atoms, most often larger oxygen or nitrogen atoms
  12. chemical reaction
    occurs when new bonds form or old ones break between atoms
  13. catalysts
    are chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur
  14. synthesis reaction (anabolism)
    when two or more atoms ions or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules.

    A + B = AB
  15. decomposition reactions (catabolism)
    • split up large molecules into smaller atoms ions or molecules
    • AB = A+B
  16. exchange reactions
    they consist of both synthesis and decomposition reactions

    AB + CD = AD + CB
  17. reversible reactions
    the products can revert to the original reactants

    AB = A+B = AB
  18. inorganic compound
    usually lack carbon and are structurally simple
  19. organic compounds
    always have carbon, always have covalent bonds and usually contain hydrogen
  20. hydrophilic
    dissolve easily in water = solutes that are charged or contain polar covalent bonds
  21. hydrophobic
    molecules that contain mainly non polar covalent bonds are not very water soluble
  22. Hydrolysis
    a chemical reaction using decomposition and water to break down molecules into smaller molecules
  23. dehydration synthesis reaction
    when two smaller molecules join to form a larger molecule in dehydration synthesis reaction a water molecule is one of the products formed
  24. heat capacity of water
    can absorb or release a relatively large amount of heat with only a modest change in its own temperature
  25. mixture
    is a combination of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but not bound by chemical bonds
  26. solution
    a substance called a solvent dissolves another substance called the solute
  27. acid
    a substance that dissassociates into positively charged hydrogen ions H+
  28. base
    removes H+ from a solutions dissassocites into one or more hydroxide ions OH- and one or more cation
  29. salt
    when dissolved in water dissociates into cations and anions neither of which is H+ or OH-
  30. pH
    extends from 0-14 this scale is based on the concentration of H+ moles per litre. 7 = neutral lower then 7 is a acid and hire then 7 is a base
  31. buffer systems
    function to convert strong acids or bases into weak acids or bases
  32. carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
    carbonic acid (H2CO3) can act as a weak acid and the bicarbonate ion HCO3- can act as a weak base. Hence this buffer system can compensate for either an excess or shortage of H+