LS2:Animal Hormones

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LS2:Animal Hormones
2012-06-13 06:34:37

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  1. Hormones
    chemical signals secreted by cells of the endocrine system
  2. Endocrine cells
    cells that secrete chemical signals
  3. Target cells
    cells that have receptors
  4. Paracrine signals
    1.affect only target cells near site of release
  5. autocrine signals
    affect the cells that released the signal
  6. Endocrine glands
    secretory organs composed of aggregations of endocrine cells which secrete signals into the extracellular fluid
  7. Exocrine glands
    Have ducts that carry their signals to the outside of the body

    Ex.Sweat gland, liver, salivary gland
  8. Neurotransmitters
    chemical signals by which neurons communicate with other cells
  9. neurohormones
    neurotransmitters that diffuse into the blood
  10. Pheromones
    chemical signals released into the environment
  11. Schreckstoff
    • 1.Alarm pheromone of fish
    • -if injured, releases it and other fish run away
  12. Hormones are in three chemical groups:
    • 1. Peptides or proteins
    • -water-soluble,
    • -ransported in blood with receptors on cell surfaces
    • 2.Steroid hormones
    • -synthesized from cholesterol
    • -lipid-soluble
    • -must be bound to carrier proteins to be carried in blood
    • -Testosterone, estrogen
    • 3.Amine hormones
    • -derivative of tyrosine
    • -Norepinephrine,T3
  13. Hormone receptors can be ______or ________
    Hormone receptors can be membrane-bound or intracellular.
  14. where are the recpetors for Lipid soluble hormones?
    inside the cell
  15. where are receptors for water-soluble hormones?
    on the outside becausethey cannot readily pass cell membrane
  16. Binding domain
    projects outside plasma membrane
  17. Transmembrane domain
    anchors receptor
  18. Cytoplasmic domain
    extends into cytoplasm, initiates target cell response
  19. The hypothalamus sends secretions tothe anterior pituitary via________
    the portal blood vessels.
  20. Hormones from the hypothalamus control
    the anterior pituitary
  21. downregulation
    continous high level hormone decreases number of recpetors
  22. Upregulation
    when hormone secretion is suppressed, receptors increase
  23. Negative feedback of target organ
    target organ hormone levels inhibits release of tropic hormones
  24. Positive feedback of delivery
    • 1.stretching of uterus ­
    • 2. Increase Oxytocin release
    • 3. which causes more stretching of uterus, until delivery
  25. Type 2 diabets
    • 1. Produces too much insulin
    • 2.Insulin receptors are permanently shut off by negative feedback
  26. Temperature regulation: too cold
    • 1.Activation of TRH
    • 2.Anterior pituitary stimulated
    • 3.TSH secreted and travels in blood
    • 4.Thyroid stimulated and produces T3 of T4
    • 5. Increases metabolic rate and temp increases
  27. Temperature regulation: over 37C
    • 1.Hypothalamus monitos temperature
    • -TRH secretion inhibited
  28. Thyroid Gland
    • 1.Largest endocrine gland
    • 2.High rate of blood flow
  29. Hypothyroidism
    • 1. Thyroxine deficiency
    • 2. result of low circulating thyroxine
    • 3.Iodine deficiency
    • 4.Thyroglobulin is not converted efficiently to T3 or T4
    • 5.too much thyroglobulin
    • -antibody actives TSH receptors and this increases thyroxine
  30. How is Thyroxine(T4) produced?
    • 1.Anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimuating hormone (TSH)
    • 2. This activates the follicles to produce thyroglobulin
    • 3.Thyroglobulin combines with iodine, the it is produced
  31. Cortisol
    • 1.Stress response
    • 2.Increases blood glucose levels by inhibiting glucose uptake into muscle and fat cells
    • 3.Blocks immune system reactions
    • 4.Increases cardiac muscle contractions
  32. Cortisol negative feedback
    • 1.When blood concentrations rise above a certain theshold,
    • 2. cortisol inhibits CRH secretion from the hypothalamus,
    • 3.which turns off ACTH secretion,
    • 4.which leads to a turning off of cortisol secretion from the adrenal.