LS2:Gas exchange

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Author:
dante01
ID:
158557
Filename:
LS2:Gas exchange
Updated:
2012-06-13 06:59:19
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final
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  1. Surface area is increased by
    • 1.External gills
    • 2.Internal gills
    • 3.Lungs
    • 4.Tracheae
  2. ventilation
    active moving of the respiratory medium over the gas exchange
  3. Perfusion
    circulating blood over the gas exchange surfaces
  4. Countercurrent flow
    • 1.Fish gills use
    • -very effective mechanism for removing the maximum amount of oxygen from the water flowing over them
    • - Countercurrent flow promotes diffusion of a substance (such as oxygen) down its concentration gradient from one fluid (water) to the other (blood)
  5. Lamellae
    site of gas excahnge and minimize the diffussion path between blood and water
  6. Afferent blood vessels
    bring blood to the gills
  7. efferent blood vessels
    take blood away
  8. Tidal
    air flows in and out by same path
  9. Tidal volume
    the amount of air that moves in and out per breath

    -at rest is meaured by a spirometer
  10. The residual volume
    the air that cannot be expelled from the lungs
  11. alveoli
    the sites of human gas exchange
  12. The affinity of hemoglobin for O2 varies. Three factors are:
    • 1.Hemoglobin composition
    • 2. pH
    • 3.2,3 BPG, lowers the affinity for O2

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