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2012-06-17 10:23:11

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  1. What can zoonotic tapes cause? Symptomatically
    • intestinal cramping
    • diarrhea
    • anal pruritis
  2. What are the common zoonotic tapes?
    • Taenia multicpes
    • Taenia serialis
    • Taenia crassiceps
    • Echinococcus granulosus
    • Echinococcus multiocularis
    • Dipylidium caninum
  3. What is the most frequently seen zoonotic cestode?
    Dipylidium caninum
  4. __ are the primary definitive host for the most of the serious and often fatal tape infections
    Wild Animals
  5. What are the two forms of Echinococcosis in humans?
    • Echinococcus granulosus
    • Echinococcus multilocularis
  6. What is Echinococcus granulosus called?
    the hydatid cyst
  7. __ this larval parasite migrates through the liver and lungs, treatment is possible but surgery is often preferred.
    Echinococcus granulosus
  8. __ is found in the Northern US. This is more serious form because treatment is not successful and surgery is far more dangerous. It looks like a tumor
    Echinococcus multilocularis
  9. What is the cestode morphology? (3 parts)
    stobila, proglottids, scolex
  10. What is the function of the cestodes to spend time in the intermediate host?
    Develop the scolex
  11. What is the description of the Eucesoda scolex Dipylidium and Taenia?
    • four radial cups (suckers)
    • rostellum, which may or may not be retractable, has hooks
  12. What is the description of the Eucesoda scolex Anoplocephala and Monezia?
    • four radial cups
    • small to no rostellum with NO vestigil hooks
  13. What is the description of the Cotyloda scolex Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra?
    weak cups and no rostellum or hooks
  14. Where are the pores located on Taenia?
    one on the margin
  15. Where are the pores located on Mesocestoides?
    one in the center
  16. Where are the pores located on Dipylidium?
    two, one on each margin
  17. According to the literature the eggs are not suppose to pass out of the pores until the __ is discharged or the proglottid is damaged in the intestinal tract
    gravid proglottid
  18. What is term meaning "egg"?
  19. __These aquatic forms discharge their eggs in the intestines
  20. What is the (3) things that make an egg structure?
    • 1. Egg gapsule
    • 2. Embryophore
    • 3. Oncosphere
  21. __ externally to protect the embryo
    Egg Capsule
  22. __ serves as a waste disposal area as well as a port for nutrition and protection
  23. __ the vermiform embryo itself
  24. the term __ is applied to all cestode stages that parasitize the intermediate host
  25. The onchosphere, upon hatching from the embryophore, becomes stage of the __ development
  26. __ is a family of cestode found in the northern stages of US
  27. Tapes and their larvae are named according to the number of _ and __ they posses
    bladder and scolex
  28. Cysticerus- one bladder and one scolex and all belong to the Genus __
  29. Eucestode metacestodes utilize only __ intermediate host; however the aquatic tapes must have __ intermediate host
    one-- two
  30. What are the 2 intermediate host typically required for aquatic tapes?
    • 1st- crustacean (example snail or clam)
    • 2nd- alsmo must be aquatic (fish) but it can be an amphibian (frog)
  31. What is the phylum, class, order and family of Dipylidium caninum?
    • phylum- Platyhelminthes
    • class- Cestoda
    • Order- Cyclophyllidea
    • Family- Dilepididae
  32. What are some characteristics of Dipylidium caninum?
    • rostellum with hooks
    • mature proglottids have two sets of sex organs with dual openings
  33. What is the Dipylidium life cycle?
    • onchospheres emerge from the proglottids once they are passed
    • eggs are ingested by fleas or lice within which the eggs hatch and migrate to body cavity
    • the tapeworm develops into a cysticercoid stage with maturation of the scolex
    • the fleas or lice are then accidentally ingested by molts in the intestines of the definitive host
    • while in the intestines, the mature tape develops (2-3 weeks) liberating thousands of eggs
  34. What is the life cycles of taenia? (all indirect)
    • Eggs are laid in contaminated soil
    • egg is consumed by intermediate vertebrate host
    • egg hatches in the intermediate host and attaches hexacanth(1st stage developing tapeworm) embryos which are the first stage larvae. The embryos move to organs and develops scolices
    • in the organ(liver) embryo differentiates to 2nd stage
    • the definitive host now eats the intermediate
    • the scolices attaches to intestinal wall, maturing begins
  35. Phylum class order and family for Taenia
    • Phylum- Plathelminthes
    • Class- Cestoda
    • Order- Cyclophyllidea
    • Family- Taeniidae
  36. __ although it is listed as a parasite of wolves, foxes, and carnivores including the cat, the dog is still considered the definitive host
    Taenia pisiformis
  37. Intermediate host for Taenia pisiformis can be rabbits, rats and squirrels as well as many different rodents; however the __ is considered the definitve intermediate host
  38. __ many felines can serve as the definitive host for this parasite with any number of rodents serving as an ideal intermediate host
    Taenia taeniaformis
  39. the mestacestodal form of __ will inhabit the liver in the rodent
    Taenia taeniaformis
  40. Cysticercus taeniaformis/fasicolaris, there is much damage to the liver and the rodent may die before being consumed by a __
  41. __ found in the intestines of wild dogs, coyotes, and wolves, the dog is still the definitive host
    Taenia hydatigena
  42. __ utilizes the sheep, cattle and swine as their intermediate host.
    Cysticerus tenuicollis
  43. Another name for the larval stage Cysticercus tenuicollis is the __
    "thin-necked bladder worm"
  44. These metacestodal forms do not inhabit the liver but attach to the mesentery in the peritoneal cavity __
    Cysticercus tenuicollis
  45. What is mesentery?
    connects organ to the wall
  46. __ the dog and wolves are considered the definitive host with the intermediate host being anything from man, sheep, cattle and moose
    Echinococcus granulosus
  47. Eggs of Echinococcus granulosus are ingested, and go into circulation and lodge in the __ and __
    liver and lungs
  48. When Echinococcus granulosus develop into mesocestodes with multiple scolices, they are called the __
    hydatid cysts
  49. Echinococcus granulosus is known as the __ in man
    Cystic Hydatid Disease
  50. This form of Echinococcus is caused by __, which is mush more serious since treatment is not successful and surgery of the many lobes of the cancerous lung tumor is often unsuccessful
    Echinococcus multiocularis
  51. How do humans contract Echinococcus multiocularis?
    by handling dogs or cats which eat rodents or by eating fruits or vegetables grown in soil contaminated by feces of foxes, coyotes, or infected dog
  52. This form of Echinococcus multiocularis in the human is called __ and is most commonly seen in the lungs
    Alveolar Hydatid Disease
  53. What is the Phylum, class, order, and family of the cestodes of Equine?
    • Phylum- Platyhelminthes
    • Class- Cestoda
    • Order- Cyclophyllidea
    • Family- Anocephalidae
  54. What does Anoplocephala look like, morphologically?
    possess scolices without hooks and some have double female reproductive organs
  55. __ all live in the intestines of horses and are considered the primary cestodes of horses; however, they can also live and reproduce in herbivorous mammals as well as monkey and birds
    Anoplocephala sp.
  56. The metacestodal stage of anaplocephala is a cysticercoid utilizing __ primarily as the intermediate host
  57. __ is the primary cestode in the southwest part of the US and is of little threat as most anthelmintics easily rid the equine of this parasite due to a lack of hooks
    Anoplocephala perfoliata
  58. Strongid- T
    Pyrantel Tartate
  59. Strongid- C
    Pyrantel pamoate
  60. Anoplocephalas of horse are able to parazitize the ruminants; however two parasites are seen most commonly in cow, sheep and goat:
    • 1. Moniezia expanza
    • 2. Moniezia benedini
  61. What are two eggs that are in groups or packets?
    • Thysanosoma
    • Dipliydium
  62. What is the metacestodes for Taenia pisiformis (dog)?
    Cysticercus pisiformis (rabbit)
  63. What is the metacestodes for Taenia hydatigena (dog)?
    Cysticercus tenuicollis (sheep, cattle, swine)
  64. What is the metacestodes for Taenia solium (man)?
    Cysticercus cellulosae (swine, man)
  65. What is the metacestodes for Taenia ovis (dog)?
    Cysticercus ovis (sheep)
  66. What is the metacestodes for Taenia taeniaeformis/hydatigera (cat)?
    Cysticercus fasciolaris
  67. What is the metacestodes for Echinococcus granulosus(dog)
    Hydatid cyst (man, sheep)
  68. all__ have mulitple scolices, and are usually found in the liver or lungs and my in time grow as large as a grapefruit
  69. free living mites of the __ serve as hosts for cysticercoids of the family anoplocephalidea, which includes all the adult tapeworms of horses, cattle, sheep and goats
  70. fleas
    Ctenocephalides spp
  71. biting lice
    Trichodectes canis
  72. The infective larvae of Mesocestoides is called__