Psy 110.7

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potteal1
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158587
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Psy 110.7
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2012-06-14 17:47:29
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Cognition
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Chapter 7
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  1. 1857-1911. French psychologist who developed the first format test for intelligence.
    Alfred Binet
  2. Very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems.
    Algorithms
  3. The ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving.
    Analytical Intelligence
  4. An example of a type of concept around which toher, similar concepts are organized, such as "dog," "cat" or "peer".
    Basic Level Type
  5. 1863-1945.  English psychologist who proposed the two-factor theory of intelligence consisting of the g factor and s factor.
    Charles Spearman
  6. Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others.
    Cognition (Thinking)
  7. The ability of the brain to build and maintain new neurons and the connections between them.
    Cognitive Reserve
  8. Theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language.
    Cognitive Universalism
  9. Ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events or activities.
    Concepts
  10. The tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs.
    Confirmation Bias
  11. Type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic.
    Convergent Thinking
  12. The ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems.
    Creative Intelligence
  13. The process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways.
    Creativity
  14. Condition in which a person's behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age.  A more acceptable term for mental retardation.
    Developmental Delay
  15. A type of intelligence measure which assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15.
    Deviation IQ Score
  16. Type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possiblities based on that point.
    Divergent Thinking
  17. The awareness of and ability to manage one's own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, able to feel what others feel and socially skilled.
    Emotional Intelligence
  18. Concepts that are defined by specific rules or features.
    Formal Concepts
  19. A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about ojects in terms of only their typical functions.
    Functional Fixedness
  20. The ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence.
    G Factor
  21. A general strategy that may help narrow down the possible solutios for a problem.  Also known as a "rule of thumb".
    Heuristics
  22. The two percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or more.
    Gifted
  23. The system of rules by which the symbols of language are arranged.
    Grammar
  24. 1943-Present.  Cognitive psychologist who has acted as a major proponent on the concept of mulitiple intelligences.  Current theory suggests that nine types of intelligence exist.
    Howard Gardner
  25. When the solution to a problem comes suddenly, also referred to as a "aha!"
    Insight
  26. The ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adpating to new situations or solving problems.
    Intelligence.
  27. A number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one's mental age by one's chronolical age and then multiplying hat quotient by 100.
    Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
  28. A system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others.
    Language
  29. 1877-1956.  Cognitive psychologist well known for his longitudinal study of gifted children, affectionately referred to a Terman's Termites.
    Lewis Terman
  30. The theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language.
    Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Sapir-Wharf Hypothesis)
  31. Heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determine and then steps are taken to reduce that difference.
    Mean-End Analysis
  32. Mental representations that stand in for objects or events and have a picture-like quality.
    Mental Images
  33. The tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.
    Mind Set
  34. The smallest units of meaning with a lanaguage.
    Morphemes
  35. Concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world.
    Natural Concepts
  36. The role a person's heredity plays in his or her development.
    Nature
  37. The standards used to assess the score of any individual who completes a standardized test.
    Norms
  38. The role a person's enviroment plays in his or her devepment.
    Nurture
  39. The basic units of sound in language.
    Phonemes
  40. The ability to use information to get along in life and become successful.
    Practical Intelligence.
  41. Aspects of language involving the practical aspects of communicating with other, or the social"niceties" of language.
    Pragmatics
  42. Process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways.
    Problem Solving
  43. An example of a concept the closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept.
    Prototype
  44. The tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people.
    Reliability
  45. 1949-Present.  Proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence which states that intelligence is composed of three different abilities.
    Robert Sternberg
  46. The ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence.
    S Factor
  47. The rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences.
    Semantics
  48. A randomly selected group chosen to represent the population for whom a psychological test is intended.  Norms are calculate based off the scores of the standardization group.
    Standardization Group
  49. The most specific category of a concept, such as one's pet dog or a pear in one's hand.
    Subordinate
  50. The most general form of a type of concept, such as "animal" or "fruit".
    Subordinate
  51. The system of rules combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentances.
    Syntax
  52. Problem-solving method in wich one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found.
    Trial and Error
  53. Sternberg's theory that there are three kinds of intelligences:  analytical; creative and practical.
    Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
  54. The degree to which a test actually measures what it's supposed to measure.
    Validity.

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