1857-1911. French psychologist who developed the first format test for intelligence.
Very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems.
The ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving.
An example of a type of concept around which toher, similar concepts are organized, such as "dog," "cat" or "peer".
Basic Level Type
1863-1945. English psychologist who proposed the two-factor theory of intelligence consisting of the g factor and s factor.
Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others.
The ability of the brain to build and maintain new neurons and the connections between them.
Theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language.
Ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events or activities.
The tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs.
Type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic.
The ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems.
The process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways.
Condition in which a person's behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age. A more acceptable term for mental retardation.
A type of intelligence measure which assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15.
Deviation IQ Score
Type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possiblities based on that point.
The awareness of and ability to manage one's own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, able to feel what others feel and socially skilled.
Concepts that are defined by specific rules or features.
A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about ojects in terms of only their typical functions.
The ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence.
A general strategy that may help narrow down the possible solutios for a problem. Also known as a "rule of thumb".
The two percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or more.
The system of rules by which the symbols of language are arranged.
1943-Present. Cognitive psychologist who has acted as a major proponent on the concept of mulitiple intelligences. Current theory suggests that nine types of intelligence exist.
When the solution to a problem comes suddenly, also referred to as a "aha!"
The ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adpating to new situations or solving problems.
A number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one's mental age by one's chronolical age and then multiplying hat quotient by 100.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
A system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others.
1877-1956. Cognitive psychologist well known for his longitudinal study of gifted children, affectionately referred to a Terman's Termites.
The theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (Sapir-Wharf Hypothesis)
Heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determine and then steps are taken to reduce that difference.
Mental representations that stand in for objects or events and have a picture-like quality.
The tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.
The smallest units of meaning with a lanaguage.
Concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world.
The role a person's heredity plays in his or her development.
The standards used to assess the score of any individual who completes a standardized test.
The role a person's enviroment plays in his or her devepment.
The basic units of sound in language.
The ability to use information to get along in life and become successful.
Aspects of language involving the practical aspects of communicating with other, or the social"niceties" of language.
Process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways.
An example of a concept the closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept.
The tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people.
1949-Present. Proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence which states that intelligence is composed of three different abilities.
The ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence.
The rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences.
A randomly selected group chosen to represent the population for whom a psychological test is intended. Norms are calculate based off the scores of the standardization group.
The most specific category of a concept, such as one's pet dog or a pear in one's hand.
The most general form of a type of concept, such as "animal" or "fruit".
The system of rules combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentances.
Problem-solving method in wich one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found.
Trial and Error
Sternberg's theory that there are three kinds of intelligences: analytical; creative and practical.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
The degree to which a test actually measures what it's supposed to measure.