Organic compounds

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Organic compounds
2012-06-13 15:17:06
Organic compounds

Organic compounds
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  1. Carbon groups
    lipids, carbohydrats, proteins, DNA, RNA, ATP
  2. Carbohydrates
    sugars, glycogen, starches, cellulose, 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to Carbon
  3. monosaccarides
    • simple sugars that contain 3-7 carbon atoms
    • ex glucose, fructose, deoxyribose, ribose
  4. disaccarides
    simple sugars formed from two or more monosaccarides by dehydration synthesis

    ex sucrose, lactose, Maltose
  5. Polysaccarides
    from tens to hundreds of monosaccarides

    ex Glycogen, starch, cellulose
  6. Lipids
    contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen like carbohydrates but do not have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. They are hydrophobic
  7. lipoproteins
    • lipids that join with protein molecules to become more soluble
    • - transport lipids in blood
    • -carry triglycerids and cholestrol to tissue and remove extra cholestrol from blood
  8. Fatty Acids
    simplest lipids which are used to synthesize triglycerids and phospholipids. They can also be catabolized to produce ATP
  9. Saturated fatty acids
    single covalent bonds between carbon atoms of the hydro chain
  10. unsaturated fatty acids
    • contains one or more double covalent bonds thus the fatty acid is not completely saturated with hydrogen atoms.
    • - it has one or more kinks in its carbon chain.
  11. Triglycerids
    • most plentiful lipids in the body. It consists of a single glycerol (3 carbons) and 3 fatty acids.
    • - 3 fatty acids attach through dehydration
    • -fats or oils at room temperature (saturated fats are solids unsaturated fats are liquid)
    • Function: protection, insulation, energy storage
  12. Phospholipids
    Structure: have a glycerol backbone two fatty acid chains attached to the first two carbons and then a phosphate group attached to the third.

    - major lipid component of plasma membrane
  13. Steroids
    • have four carbon ring atoms
    • -important in cell membrane structure, regulating sexual functions, maintaining normal blood sugar level, aiding lipid digestion and absorption, and helping bone growth
  14. Eicosanoids
    modify hormone responses, contirbute to inflammation, dilate airways, regulate body temperature.

    • - made from a 20 carbon fatty acid called arachidonic acid
    • -2 subclasses = Leukotrienes (participate in allergic and inflammatory responses) and Prostaglandins.
  15. Proteins
    are large molecules that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen.

    • -constructed from amino acids
    • -they give structure to the body
    • -regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles contract transport substances and serve as enzymes
  16. amino acids
    • monomers of proteins each has a hydrogen atom and three important functional groups attached to a carbon atom.
    • 1) a side chain
    • 2) an amino group (-Nh2)
    • 3) an acidic carboxyly group (-COOH)
  17. Peptide bond
    the covalent bond joining each pair of amino acids. It always forms between the carbon of the (-COOH) and the Nitrogen of the (-NH2)
  18. Sturctures of proteins:
    Primary Sturcture
    is the unique sequence of amino acids that are linked by a covalent peptide bond to form a polypeptide
  19. Structures of Proteins:
    Secondary structure
    the repeated twisting or folding of neighboring amino acids in the polypeptide chain
  20. Protein Structures:
    Tertiary Structure
    refers to the three dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain
  21. Protein Structures:
    Quaternary structure
    in proteins that contain more than one polypeptide chain the arrangement of individual chains relative to one another is the quaternary structure
  22. denaturation
    if a protein unravels and loses its characteristic shape
  23. Nucleic Acid
    are huge molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus.
  24. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    forms the inherited genetic material inside each human cell
  25. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    relays intsrtuctins from the genes to guide each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids.
  26. Composition of DNA:
    a nucleic acid is a chain of repeating monomers called nucleotides
  27. DNA Composition:
    Nitrogen base of molecule
    4 types: Adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine

    Adenine + thymine and cytosine + guanine
  28. DNA Composition:
    a five carbon sugar that attaches to each Nitrogen base in DNA
  29. Double helix
    spiral ladder of DNA created by watson-crick
  30. pentose ribose
    the sugar in the RNA nucleotide
  31. ATP
    is the energy currency of living systems. It transfers the energy liberated in exergonic catabolic reactions to power cellular activities the require energy
  32. ADP
    when ATP transfers energy to an endergonic reaction it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (adp)
  33. Enzymes
    catalysts of chemical reactions are protein molecules called enzymes
  34. substrates
    the reactant molecules on which the enzyme acts
  35. active site
    the part of the enzyme that catalizes the reaction