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lipids, carbohydrats, proteins, DNA, RNA, ATP
sugars, glycogen, starches, cellulose, 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to Carbon
- simple sugars that contain 3-7 carbon atoms
- ex glucose, fructose, deoxyribose, ribose
simple sugars formed from two or more monosaccarides by dehydration synthesis
ex sucrose, lactose, Maltose
from tens to hundreds of monosaccarides
ex Glycogen, starch, cellulose
contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen like carbohydrates but do not have a 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. They are hydrophobic
- lipids that join with protein molecules to become more soluble
- - transport lipids in blood
- -carry triglycerids and cholestrol to tissue and remove extra cholestrol from blood
simplest lipids which are used to synthesize triglycerids and phospholipids. They can also be catabolized to produce ATP
Saturated fatty acids
single covalent bonds between carbon atoms of the hydro chain
unsaturated fatty acids
- contains one or more double covalent bonds thus the fatty acid is not completely saturated with hydrogen atoms.
- - it has one or more kinks in its carbon chain.
- most plentiful lipids in the body. It consists of a single glycerol (3 carbons) and 3 fatty acids.
- - 3 fatty acids attach through dehydration
- -fats or oils at room temperature (saturated fats are solids unsaturated fats are liquid)
- Function: protection, insulation, energy storage
Structure: have a glycerol backbone two fatty acid chains attached to the first two carbons and then a phosphate group attached to the third.
- major lipid component of plasma membrane
- have four carbon ring atoms
- -important in cell membrane structure, regulating sexual functions, maintaining normal blood sugar level, aiding lipid digestion and absorption, and helping bone growth
modify hormone responses, contirbute to inflammation, dilate airways, regulate body temperature.
- - made from a 20 carbon fatty acid called arachidonic acid
- -2 subclasses = Leukotrienes (participate in allergic and inflammatory responses) and Prostaglandins.
are large molecules that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen.
- -constructed from amino acids
- -they give structure to the body
- -regulate processes, provide protection, help muscles contract transport substances and serve as enzymes
- monomers of proteins each has a hydrogen atom and three important functional groups attached to a carbon atom.
- 1) a side chain
- 2) an amino group (-Nh2)
- 3) an acidic carboxyly group (-COOH)
the covalent bond joining each pair of amino acids. It always forms between the carbon of the (-COOH) and the Nitrogen of the (-NH2)
Sturctures of proteins:
is the unique sequence of amino acids that are linked by a covalent peptide bond to form a polypeptide
Structures of Proteins:
the repeated twisting or folding of neighboring amino acids in the polypeptide chain
refers to the three dimensional shape of a polypeptide chain
in proteins that contain more than one polypeptide chain the arrangement of individual chains relative to one another is the quaternary structure
if a protein unravels and loses its characteristic shape
are huge molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
forms the inherited genetic material inside each human cell
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
relays intsrtuctins from the genes to guide each cell's synthesis of proteins from amino acids.
Composition of DNA:
a nucleic acid is a chain of repeating monomers called nucleotides
Nitrogen base of molecule
4 types: Adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
Adenine + thymine and cytosine + guanine
a five carbon sugar that attaches to each Nitrogen base in DNA
spiral ladder of DNA created by watson-crick
the sugar in the RNA nucleotide
is the energy currency of living systems. It transfers the energy liberated in exergonic catabolic reactions to power cellular activities the require energy
when ATP transfers energy to an endergonic reaction it is decomposed to adenosine diphosphate (adp)
catalysts of chemical reactions are protein molecules called enzymes
the reactant molecules on which the enzyme acts
the part of the enzyme that catalizes the reaction