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  1. What is the order of Trematodes?
  2. Trematodes are generally __ creatures with more complex lifecycles than nematodes and cestodes.
  3. __ mostly direct with the occasional indirect cycle like heartworms or spirocerca lupi
  4. __ all required at least one intermediate and thus all are indirect
  5. __ are not only all indirect byt all required changes in the intermediate host with some intermediates capable of asexual reproduction
  6. What is the trematode life cycle?
    • 1. egg
    • 2. egg hatch to miracidium with cilia and wims
    • 3. miracidium penetrates body of snail
    • 4. in snail mircidium >sporocyst
    • 5. sporocysts (asexually) > 10 rediae
    • 6. 10 rediae (asexually) >100 cercariae
    • 7. cercariae leave the snail swim to grass where they are consumed by ruminant. Metamorphoses occurs and they are capable of sexual reproduction
  7. What are the the two flukes involved in ruminants?
    • 1. Fasioliasis
    • 2. Dicrocoeliasis
  8. What are the (3) Fascioliasis that are common:
    • 1. Fasciola gigantica- giant liver fluke
    • 2. Fasciola magna- large liver fluke
    • 3. Fasciola hepatica- common liver fluke
  9. What is the common Dicrocoeliasis?
    Dicrocoelium lanceatum- or lancet or lesser liver fluke
  10. What is the life cycle of the liver fluke?
    • 1. The adult Fasciola hepatic lives in the bile ducts
    • 2. Sexual and asexual reproduction releases egg
    • 3. Eggs passes through the bile duct into duodenum
    • 4. Eggs are diagnosed on fecal flotation
    • 5. Eggs> miracidium > snail > sporocyts > rediae > cercariae > metacercariae (bad weather) > consumption via host > penetrate bowel > liver for migration and disruption of parenchyma
  11. __ (gram positive bacteria) inhabits the liver in the vegetative form (active) and assumes the spore form (dormant)
    Clostridium novyi
  12. As the flukes migrate throughout the parenchyma, they disturb the dormant spores which will activate to the vegetative form releasing a __ that will kill in a matter of hours or days
  13. what is "blacks disease"?
    Clostridium novyi
  14. __ is the lung fluke of dogs and occasionally cats.
    Paragonimus kellicotti
  15. In southeast Texas __ is our primary concern due to the crayfish being the intermediatte host
    Paragonimus kellicotti
  16. In the northwest, the fluke __ carries a rickettsial organism call Neorickettsia helminthoeca capable of causing fatal enteritis in dogs.
    Nanophytes salmincola
  17. What is the nickname for Nanophytes salmincola?
    "Salmon Poisoning"
  18. __ is still the most common fluke in the U.S.; however this stomach fluke is non-pathogenic
    Alaria canis
  19. What is the etiology that causes "Salmon Poisoning"?
    Neorickettsia helminthoeca
  20. __ is the fluke of cats which inhabit the bile ducts and pass eggs like the liver flukes of the ruminant
    Amphimerus felineus
  21. What are some Flukacides?
    • Valbazen (albendazole) Pfizer
    • Ivomec-F/IVOMEC Plus (ivermecting/clorsulon)
    • Curatrem- Merial specific for liver flukes
  22. Liver flukes have been identified or diagnosed in native cattle in __ states
    26 states
  23. The National Beef Quality Audit also introduced facts that flukes can even effect __
    bull fertility
  24. If your cattle have liver flukes, you pay with: (4) things
    • reduced pregnancy rates
    • weaning weights
    • rate of gain
    • bull fertility
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