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What is the order of Trematodes?
Trematodes are generally __ creatures with more complex lifecycles than nematodes and cestodes.
__ mostly direct with the occasional indirect cycle like heartworms or spirocerca lupi
__ all required at least one intermediate and thus all are indirect
__ are not only all indirect byt all required changes in the intermediate host with some intermediates capable of asexual reproduction
What is the trematode life cycle?
- 1. egg
- 2. egg hatch to miracidium with cilia and wims
- 3. miracidium penetrates body of snail
- 4. in snail mircidium >sporocyst
- 5. sporocysts (asexually) > 10 rediae
- 6. 10 rediae (asexually) >100 cercariae
- 7. cercariae leave the snail swim to grass where they are consumed by ruminant. Metamorphoses occurs and they are capable of sexual reproduction
What are the the two flukes involved in ruminants?
- 1. Fasioliasis
- 2. Dicrocoeliasis
What are the (3) Fascioliasis that are common:
- 1. Fasciola gigantica- giant liver fluke
- 2. Fasciola magna- large liver fluke
- 3. Fasciola hepatica- common liver fluke
What is the common Dicrocoeliasis?
Dicrocoelium lanceatum- or lancet or lesser liver fluke
What is the life cycle of the liver fluke?
- 1. The adult Fasciola hepatic lives in the bile ducts
- 2. Sexual and asexual reproduction releases egg
- 3. Eggs passes through the bile duct into duodenum
- 4. Eggs are diagnosed on fecal flotation
- 5. Eggs> miracidium > snail > sporocyts > rediae > cercariae > metacercariae (bad weather) > consumption via host > penetrate bowel > liver for migration and disruption of parenchyma
__ (gram positive bacteria) inhabits the liver in the vegetative form (active) and assumes the spore form (dormant)
As the flukes migrate throughout the parenchyma, they disturb the dormant spores which will activate to the vegetative form releasing a __ that will kill in a matter of hours or days
what is "blacks disease"?
__ is the lung fluke of dogs and occasionally cats.
In southeast Texas __ is our primary concern due to the crayfish being the intermediatte host
In the northwest, the fluke __ carries a rickettsial organism call Neorickettsia helminthoeca capable of causing fatal enteritis in dogs.
What is the nickname for Nanophytes salmincola?
__ is still the most common fluke in the U.S.; however this stomach fluke is non-pathogenic
What is the etiology that causes "Salmon Poisoning"?
__ is the fluke of cats which inhabit the bile ducts and pass eggs like the liver flukes of the ruminant
What are some Flukacides?
- Valbazen (albendazole) Pfizer
- Ivomec-F/IVOMEC Plus (ivermecting/clorsulon)
- Curatrem- Merial specific for liver flukes
Liver flukes have been identified or diagnosed in native cattle in __ states
The National Beef Quality Audit also introduced facts that flukes can even effect __
If your cattle have liver flukes, you pay with: (4) things
- reduced pregnancy rates
- weaning weights
- rate of gain
- bull fertility