The Plasma Membrane

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  1. Lipid bilayer
    • two back to back layers made up of three types of lipid molecules
    • Phospholipids, cholesterol, and glycolipids
  2. Phospholipids
    lipids that contain phosphorus heads with a glycerol back bone and two fatty acids
  3. Cholestrol
    a steroid with an attached -OH group
  4. glycolipids
    lipids with attached carbohydrate groups
  5. integral proteins
    extend into or through the lipid bilayer, among the fatty acid tails and are firmly embedded in it.
  6. transmembrane proteins
    are integral proteins that span the entire lipid bilayer and protrude into both the cytosol and the extracellular fluid.
  7. peripheral proteins
    not as fimrly beded in the plasma membrane. They associate more loosely with the polar heads of the membrane lipids or with integral proteins at the inner or outer surface of the membrane.
  8. glycoprotein
    proteins with carbohydrate groups attached to the end that protrude into the extracellular fluid
  9. Functions of membrane proteins:
    Ion channel (integral)
    allows specific ions to move through water filled proes. can flow to get into or out of cells. Most allow only a specific ion through.
  10. functions of membrane proteins
    Carriers or transporters(integral proteins)
    selectively moving specific polar substances across membrane by changing shape.
  11. Functions of membrane proteins:
    Receptors (Integral proteins)
    serve as cellular recognition sites. Each type recognizes and bonds a specific type of molecule.
  12. Functions of membrane proteins:
    Enzyme (integral and peripheral)
    catalyzes reaction inside or outside of cell(depending on which side the active site faces)
  13. Function of proteins in membrane:
    anchor proteins in the plasma membranes of neighbouring cells to one another or to protein filaments inside and outside of the cell.
  14. Function of proteins in Membrane:
    Cell identity marker (glycoprotein)
    enable cells to recognize other cells of the same kind during tissue formation or to to recognize and respond to potentially dangerous foreign cells in the body.
  15. concentration gradient
    is a difference in the concentration of a chemical from one place to another such as from the inside to the outside of the plasma membrane.
  16. Membrane fluidity
    • -dependes both on the number of double bonds in the fatty acid tails of the lipids that make up the bilayer and on the amount of cholestrol present.  
    • -It enables the movement of membrane components responsible for cellular processes such as cell movement, growth, division and secretions. 
  17. Selective permeability
    The plasma membranes permit some substances to pass more readily than others
  18. electrochemical gradient
    the combined influence of the concentration gradient and the electrical gradient on the movement of particular ions.
  19. electrical gradient
    a difference in electrical charge in two different regions
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The Plasma Membrane
2012-06-14 16:50:09

The Plasma Membrane
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