Psyc100A Exam 1

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Author:
derekm
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158631
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Psyc100A Exam 1
Updated:
2012-06-13 19:47:28
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psych 100
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UVic psycholog 100A
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  1. What is a zygote?
    A zygote is a fertilized egg. After 10 days, the zygote attaches to the uterine wall and becomes an "embryo."
  2. What is an embryo?
    An embryo is the next stage of development after the zygote. The embryo exists from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month. It precedes a fetus. Organs begin to develop in the embryo.
  3. What is a fetus?
    A fetus is the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
  4. What is a teratogen?
    Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
  5. What is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)?
    Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable acial misproportions.
  6. What is habituation?
    Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
  7. Maturation
    Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
  8. Cognition
    All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
  9. Schema
    A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
  10. Assimilation
    Interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas.
  11. Accomodation
    Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
  12. Sensorimotor stage
    In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
  13. Object permanence
    The awareness that things continue to exist even when not percieved.
  14. Preoperational stage
    In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
  15. Conservation
    The principle (which Piaget believed to be part of concrete operation reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
  16. Egocentrism
    In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
  17. Theory of mind
    peoples' ideas about their own and others' mental states - about their own feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict
  18. concrete operational stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
  19. formal operational stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people beging to think logically about abstract concepts
  20. autism
    a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
  21. stranger anxiety
    the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
  22. attachment
    an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
  23. critical period
    an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experinces produces proper development
  24. imprinting
    the process by which certian animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
  25. basic trust
    according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
  26. self-concept
    our understanding and evaluation of who we are
  27. adolescence
    the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
  28. puberty
    the period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
  29. primary sex characteristics
    the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genetalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
  30. secondary sex characteristics
    non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality and body hair
  31. menarche
    the first menstual period

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