Exam 3

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Author:
jhondras
ID:
158688
Filename:
Exam 3
Updated:
2012-06-13 23:02:49
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microbiology
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Description:
chapters 6 and 7
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  1. Sterilization
    Complete Absence of life
  2. Commercial Sterilzation
    complete absense of any pathogen
  3. Disinfectant
    • Used on inanimate surfaces
    • kills microbes
  4. Antiseptic
    Kills bacteria on living tissues
  5. Biocide
    A substance capable of killing microorganisms
  6. Germicide
    A substance capable of killing microorganisms
  7. Bateriostatic
    Stops growth of bacteria
  8. Sepsis
    Bacterial contamination
  9. Antisepsis
    Absense of Bacterial contamination
  10. Rate of Microbial Death is dependent on 4 Factors:
    • 1) Number of microbes
    • 2) Presense of organic matter (blood, vomit, etc)
    • 3) Time of exposureof antimicrobial
    • 4) Microbial characteristics
  11. Time and Temperature to kill Endospores with Moist Heat
    121o C (250o F) for 15 minutes
  12. Phenol
    • Disruption of plasma membrane
    • Denaturation of enzymes
    • Rarely used-smells bad
  13. Bisphenols
    • Disruption of plasma membrane
    • Denaturation of enzymes
    • Thymol (in 1% of Listerine)
    • O-Pheynlphenol
  14. O-Pheynlphenol
    Phenolic
  15. Thymol
    • Phenolic
    • In Listerine
  16. Bisphenols
    • Disrupts plasma membrane
    • In a lot of soaps and lotions
  17. Triclosan
    Bisphenol
  18. Chlorhexidine
    Biguanide
  19. Biguanides
    • Plasma membrane disruption
    • Skin disinfections (especially for surgical scrubs)
  20. Halogens
    Chlorine and Iodine
  21. Chlorine
    • Protein denaturation
    • Strong oxidizer
  22. Bleach
    • 5% NaOCl- (sodium hypochlorite)
    • Chlorine kills
  23. Iodine
    • Protein denaturation
    • Antiseptic
  24. Alcohols
    • Protein denaturation
    • Lipid Dissolution
    • Must be 70-90% concentration, or it will not be taken in by cell
    • Bactericidal and Fungicidal
  25. Isopropanol
    • Alcohol
    • Rubbing alcohol
    • Bactericidal and Fungicidal
  26. Ethanol
    • Alcohol
    • Bactericidal and Fungicidal
  27. Heavy Metals
    • Kills by oligodynamic action
    • Denatures proteins and enzymes
    • Biocidal
    • Silver nitrate, copper sulfate, mercurichrome
  28. Silver
    Heavy Metal
  29. Copper Sulfate
    Heavy Metal
  30. Mercurichrome
    Heavy Metal
  31. Soaps and Detergents
    Do not kill microbes, but physically remove them
  32. Acid-Anionic Sanitizers
    • Santiize food and dairy industry
    • Probably denatures enzymes?
  33. QUATS (what it stands for)
    Quatenary Ammonium Compounds
  34. QUATS (what it is)
    • Very effective at killing bacteria
    • Denatures proteins
    • Disrupts plasma membrane
    • Enzyme inhibition
    • Controls mold and bacteria in food and cosmetics
  35. Zephiran
    QUAT
  36. Cepacol
    QUAT
  37. Organic Acids
    • Sorbic acid
    • Benzoic Acid
    • Citric Acid
    • Lactic Acid

    Food Preservatives
  38. Nitrates and Nitrites
    Prevents botulism in cured meats and keeps pink color of meat
  39. Antibiotics
    • kill bacteria
    • produced by fungii or streptomyces bacteria
  40. Aldehydes
    Denature proteins
  41. Glutaralehyde
    Aldehyde
  42. Formaldhyde
    Aldehyde
  43. Gas Sterilants
    Inhibits cellular functions
  44. Ethylene Oxide
    • Gas
    • Used by dentists to sterilize tool s
  45. Most Resistant to lease resistant microbes
    • Prions
    • Bacterial Endospores
    • Mycobacteria
    • Cysts of protozoa
    • Vegatiative Protozoa
    • Gram - bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Viruses without envelopes
    • Gram + bacteria
    • Viruses with lipid envelopes
  46. Use-Dillution
    • Way to evalutate chemical agents
    • Dry bacteria and put it in disinfectants and put in plate to see how many bacteria remain
  47. Danger Zone
    60-130 degrees
  48. Safe Temperature for cooked meats
    160-165 degrees
  49. Disc Diffusion
    • put disinfectant in center of culture
    • the bigger the ring of no growth the better it works
  50. Thermal Death Point (TDP)
    lowest temperature in which all microrganisms will be killed in a particular medium in 10 minutes
  51. Thermal Death Rate (TDR)
    Minimal length of time for bacteria to be killed at a given temperature
  52. Decimal Reduction Time (DRT)
    Amount of time to reduce # of spores by 90% at a given temperature
  53. Pasteurization
    Enough heat to kill all pathogens and extend shelf life
  54. Dry Heat
    • Kills by oxidation Effects
    • Direct Flaming
    • Incineration
    • Hot Air (Ovens)
  55. Time and Temp to Sterilize in an Oven
    170 degrees C for 2 hours
  56. High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA)
    Removes microbes lager than .3um in diameter
  57. Membrane Filters
    • In liquids
    • removes bacteria larger than .22 or .45 um
  58. Refridgeration
    • 32-40 degrees
    • Slows down enzymes=stops growth
  59. Freezing
    Eliminating water
  60. High Pressure
    • (ie Hummus)
    • If you dont care about texture
  61. Osmotic Pressure
    5% salt or 65% sugar will casue all H20 to leave cell causing it to shrink (hypertonic)
  62. Dessication
    • Drying
    • Microorganism cannot grown or reproduce without water
  63. Ionizing Radiation
    • Gamma, X-rays, High Energy Electron Beams
    • Shorter Wavelength = more energy
    • Messes with bacteria's DNA
  64. Non-Ionizing Radiation
    • UV Light
    • Kills bacteria but doesnt penetrate surface
    • Longer wavelength= less energy
  65. Psychrophiles
    • Cold Loving Microbes
    • OT: 15 degrees
    • Range: 0-20 degrees
  66. Psychotrophs
    • Cold Loving
    • OT: 25 degrees
    • Range 0-30 degrees
  67. Mesophiles
    • Moderate temp loving Microbes
    • OT: 37 degrees
    • Range: 10-50 degrees
  68. Thermophiles
    • Heat loving microbes
    • OT: 50-60 degrees
    • Range: 40-70 degrees
  69. Hyperthermophiles
    • Extreme heat loving microbes
    • OT:95 degrees
    • Range: 65-110 degrees
  70. Obligate Aerobes
    Need O2 to survive
  71. Obligate Anaerobes
    O2 Kills them
  72. Faculative AnaerobeS
    • Can live with (aerobic) or without oxygen (fermentation)
    • Survive better with
  73. Aerotolerant Anaerobes
    Dont use O2 but can detoxify
  74. Microaerophilic
    Use less O2 (usually 20%)
  75. Extrinsic Factors for Microbes to Grow
    • Temperature
    • Atmosphere
    • Pressure
    • Radiation
  76. Intrinsic Factors for Microbes to Grow
    • Nutrients
    • Water Activity
    • pH
    • Osmotic Pressure
    • Bilogical Structure
    • Presence of antimicrobials
  77. Pressure
    • Factor that affects growth
    • some organisms live in high or low pressure situations (bottom of sea vs. top of mountain)
  78. Necessiary Nutrients
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Hydrogen
    • Sulfur
    • Phosphates
    • Minor Elements
  79. pH
    • Most organisms grow best at pH 6.5-7.5
    • Some can grow at much lower pH (Acidophiles)
  80. Osmotic Pressure
    5% salt or 65% sugar will kill most bacteria by shrinkage (hypertonic)
  81. Biological
    Nuts, skins, shells etc will not allow microbes in
  82. Presence of Natural Antimicrobials
    • Garlic=antifungal
    • Cranberries= natural benzoic acid
  83. Chemically Defined Media
    A medium whose exact chemical composition is known
  84. Complex media
    • medium made of various nutrients and proteins that most heterotrophic would be able to hgrow in
    • nutrient agar or nutrient broth
  85. Reducing Media
    To grow anaerobes
  86. Selective Media
    Excludes unwanted microbes (gram + vs. gram -)
  87. Differential Media
    Differentiates between closely related species
  88. Enrichment Culture
    Favors particular microbes to grow
  89. Deep Freezing
    microbes are placed in liquid and frozen to preserve microbes
  90. Lyophilization (freeze-drying)
    Water is removed from frozen microbes and they are sealed in glass to preserve
  91. Generation Time
    1-3 hours for most bacteria
  92. Lag
    Prepping for reproduction and growth but none yet
  93. Log
    Rapid growth of population
  94. Stationary
    • Births = deaths
    • Equilibrium
  95. Death
    Population decreases at rapid rate
  96. Log Graph

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