You hear a train sound... followed by trumpet, guitar, slower tempo
"Waitin for a Train" - Jimmie Rodgers
Talk to me about the song "Barbara Allen"
FORM - strophic
GENRE - ballad (all about story!)
MELODY - pentatonic
COMPOSER - anonymous
243 different versions in the Library of Congress
Talk to me about "De Boatman Dance"
COMPOSER - Dan Emmett
FORM - verse/chorus
CHARACTERISTICS - major mode, banjo accompaniment, bones accompaniment
GENRE - Minstrel show
Commodification of music occurs when?
Music becomes a product that can be bought or sold
What tends to generally be simple in form and structure, shared by a particular community and passed down through oral tradition?
Define: folk music
Genre that tends to be simple in form and structure, shared by a particular community and passed down through oral tradition.
What was the first popular music genre created in the U.S.?
Identify: "music becoming a product that can be bought or sold"
Minstrel show character and song
Who is Thomas Dartmouth Rice?
Famous minstrel show composer and performer
Who is William Billings?
He was a tanner who wrote hymns and patriotic songs
Name a minstrel show character/song
Name a famous minstrel show composer/performer
Thomas Dartmouth Rice
Who was the tanner who wrote hymns and patriotic songs?
Who was Stephen Foster?
The first important composer in the U.S.
Who was the first important composer in the U.S.?
Who was Cecil Sharp?
A British scholar and collector of ballads
Name the British scholar and collector of ballads?
What is the issue with Grove Music Online's database and its definition of "popular music"?
It is biased in that it includes implied judgments on the value of popular music v. classical music.
What are new music genres often created by?
What is often the role of subordinate cultures?
Creating new music genres, ironically.
What is shape note singing?
Music written out in a manner so that music-illiterate singers can participate.
Often used in hymns for mass participation.
Notes are different shapes for quicker associations (triangles, squares, etc)
Identify: "Music written out in a manner so that music-illiterate singers can participate. Often used in hymns for mass participation. Notes are different shapes for quicker associations (triangles, squares, etc)"
What are parlor songs?
Songs that were sung at home
Typically simple so that many could participate
(SOMETIMES song by professionals)
Explain the Bay Psalm Book
The first music book made in America
Had a vast collection of different hymns
Identify: "songs sung at home, usually simple, with easy accompaniment. 19th century"
Identify: "first music book made in America, with a vast collection of different hymns"
Bay Psalm Book
Theodore Adorno - tell me about him.
First person to truly account for pop music as a legitimate study.
Studied at the Frankfurt School.
Influenced by Karl Marx
Classically trained (Alban Berg)
Thought pop music was partially damaging society
Who was the first person to account for pop music as a legitimate study?
Define: broadside ballad
a ballad composed and written on a newspaper-like pamphlet that people could purchase at a market
Define: pleasure garden
influenced from a European tradition, this is where people would go to socialize (beautiful, lush gardens) and often hear music in the form of small groups
Identify: "a ballad composed and written on a newspaper-like pamphlet that people could purchase at a market"
Identify: "influenced from a European tradition, this is where people would go to socialize and often hear music in the form of small groups"
Define: lining out
a process of learning music in a more simple manner, done by first simply singing melody without words and generally getting more complex by adding lyrics
Identify: "a process of learning music in a more simple manner, done by first simply singing melody without words and generally getting more complex by adding lyrics"
Humanly organized sound
Identify: "humanly organized sound"
Talk about the "of" vs. "for" argument
It has to do with a cycle of influences - essentially an argument can be made either way, that people are influencing popular music with their culture (music OF the people) or music is influencing how culture is effected, controlled by ... who? (music FOR the people)
the dominant view of Western culture that privileges European-derived cultural forms and generally reflects white, upper middle-class, heterosexual male perspectives
Identify: "the dominant view of Western culture that privileges European-derived cultural forms and generally reflects white, upper middle-class, heterosexual male perspectives"
study of folk and traditional music of the entire world (broadened to include any type of music and surrounding culture)
A song that tells a story
Identify: "a song that tells a story"
Ballads were mostly what form?
Define: strophic (in our terms)
same melody repeating with different words
Identify: "same melody repeating with different words"
whites blackened their face with burnt cork, exaggerated their facial features - performed with pretty crazy racial stereotypes.
Identify: "whites blackened their face with burnt cork, exaggerated their facial features - performed with pretty crazy racial stereotypes."
Who was Thomas Dartmouth Rice?
He wrote the song "Jim Crow", which became a stock character in minstrel shows.
He also toured Europe in the 1830s
Who invented "Jim Crow"?
Thomas Dartmouth Rice. He even toured around after gaining fame in the 1830s
Define: "Zip Coon"
Another character in minstrel shows that parodied upper-class "city-slickers", of course performed in blackface
Who was the character in minstrel shows that parodied the upper-class? He was known as the "city-slicker" type.
The "Zip Coon" character
Typically the so-called "master of ceremonies" (not blackface) of the minstrel shows. He was an upper-class white character, with refined vocabulary.
Identify: "Typically the so-called "master of ceremonies" (not blackface) of the minstrel shows. He was an upper-class white character, with refined vocabulary."
Who was Stephen Foster?
He wrote "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair"
Wrote over 200 songs, including more than just folk songs
He was the first important composer of American songs
First to live solely from sales of compositions
Who wrote "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair"?
Who was the first important composer of American songs?
What was the baby boomer generation?
The youth of the 1950s who "invented" the teenager as a commercial and cultural entity
Record companies started targeting them
1/3 of total record-buying population
What was important about the teen market in the 1950s?
As a new generation they were the focus for record companies, as they used the new music as a form of rebellion
What was important about American Bandstand?
It spread culture of consumerism, and was one of the most popular venues of music as by 1955 nearly 2/3 of American households had TVs.
It was presented "live" and included teenagers dancing to records
Hosted by Dick Clark
Soldified growing youth culture
What were the Billboard's 3 categories pre-1950?
What is "jump blues"?
Rhythmic R&B style
Evolved from black big bands
Featured simple riffs, blues-based tunes, explosive improvised solos and spontaneity
Who was Louis Jordan?
Famous for his jump blues
Saxophonist, singer, and band leader
His band was "The Tympani Five"
Grandfather of rap
Differences between Big Companies and Independents in mid 20th century
Big Companies: ASCAP, Independents: BMI
Big Companies: White audience, Independents: teens, country, R&B, etc.
Big Companies: Older exec's out of touch with baby boomers, Independents: attuned to new teen market
Who was Alan Freed?
Famous DJ in 50s.
Promoted R&B on his radio show
Refused to play white cover versions
Among first to term "rock n' roll"
Charged with 26 counts of bribery
Who was Bill Haley?
The first white artist to successfully adapt R&B style for a mass pop audience
"Rock Around the Clock" was his big hit
Who sang "Rock Around the Clock"?
Who was the first to adapt R&B style to a mass pop audience?
What was "Blackboard Jungle"?
MOVIE, not a song
Featured the first rock song ("Rock around the clock")
Was about teenage rebellion in schools and how crazy things were getting
The rock song symbolized the teenage rebellion
What was important about cover versions in the 1950s?
There was a big argument over "borrowing vs. stealing"
Oftentimes social inequality (white people covering black songs)
Major record labels would try to cash in on discoveries of independents
Talk about Supreme vs. Decca
Paula Watson recorded "A little Bird Told Me", which was then stolen by some white chick Evelyn Knight
Supreme (record company) pissed off, and sues Decca (other record company).
Decca won, musical arrangements were not copyrighted property
Who was Little Richard?
He was known for his visually flamboyant styles, sang R&B
Had an uninhibited shouting style
Sang "Tutti Frutti"
Renounced career later to study at a Christian University
Who was Chuck Berry?
R&B singer/guitarist famous for his "duck walk"
Would have been "king of rock n' roll" if not for racism
Who was famous for the duck walk?
Chuck Berry (first name.. rhymes with duck....get it!?)
Talk about Elvis
First to have a chart first in Pop, R&B and country/western charts simultaneously
Had a suggestive performing style
Filmed from the waist-up on Ed Sullivan show because of this
Who was Big Mama Thornton?
She originally sang "Hound Dog", was a big hit on R&B charts
Who originally sang "Hound Dog"?
Big Mama Thornton
Who was Pat Boone?
He built his career by "sanitizing" the classics
Took Little Richard's "Tutti Frutti"
Helped gain exposure for musicians
Talk about the Payola hearings
a bribe was given by record companies to radio stations to promote certain records (common practice back then)
DJ's were being brought commercial bribery charges
25 DJs/program directors were caught in the scandal
Not enough hard evidence
Later outright forbidden in FCA Act of 1960
Alan Freed got screwed with 26 counts of bribery
Teen Idols/Schlock rock
1950s, new generation of white, middle-class teen idols sprouted
Meant to put a bland, white, middle-class face on rock n' roll
Centered in Philadelphia
Emphasis on image
Tell me everything you know about "Barbara Allen"
There are over 243 different versions
GENRE - ballad
MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS - pentatonic scale, tells the story of Barbara Allen
COMPOSER - anonymous
Difference between Francis Child and Cecil Sharp
Child was an American that collected British ballads.
Sharp was a Brit that collected American ballads.
Who was Cecil Sharp?
British scholar who collected U.S. ballads
Who was Francis James Child?
American scholar who collected British ballads.
Who was the British scholar who collected U.S. ballads?
Who was the American scholar who collected British ballads?
You hear a song, it is modal, only has one voice, and sounds like it could be sung at a campfire.
Barbara Allen (anonymous, ballad, strophic, 243, etc.)
Sing "Barbara Allen"
Out in the merry month of something... where the green grass grows (I think...)... (it's pentatonic.... you got it)
Tell me everything you know about "De Boatman's Dance"
GENRE - Minstrel show
COMPOSER - Dan Emmett
MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS - features banjo, fiddle, drums, has "Ethiopian dialect", syncopation
You hear banjo, fiddle, at about 120BPM, and then the words "High row, ............, floatin' down the river Ohio"
It is "De Boatmen's Dance" (minstrel show, Dan Emmett, banjo, fiddle, drums, Ethiopian dialect, syncopation)
Sing "De Boatman Dance"
"High ho, de boatman row, floatin' down the river Ohio....dance de boatman daaaance, dance de boatman dance, oooh something something"
Tell me everything about "I dream of Jeanie with the light brown hair"
GENRE - parlor song
COMPOSER - Stephen Foster
FORM - AABA
MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS - simple, major scales, predictable forms, easy accomp.,
You hear a piano introduction, then a man singing. The accompaniment sounds simple enough, and the words and melody sound familiar. It sounds pretty easy, like almost anyone could sing it. What is it?
Probably "Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair" (parlor, Stephen Foster, AABA, simple, major scales, predictable forms, easy accompaniment)
Sing "Jeanie with the light brown hair"
I dreeeeam of Jeanie with the light, brown, haair... Born like a VApor on the summer airr..... I see.... (etc)
Tell me everything about "After the Ball"
GENRE - ballad/parlor song/Early TPA song
COMPOSER - Charles Harris
MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS - band accompaniment/strings, tells a tale, emphasis on the chorus!, influential in TPA
FORM - 3 verse ballad, 32 bars
You hear a band, it's in 6/8, then a man's voice comes in. It sounds like something off of "March of the Wooden soldiers", so its very old-timey sounding, and the man is telling a romantic story. There's a chorus that sounds important! What is it????
Probably "After the ball" (C. Harris, ballad/parlor song/Early TPA, band accompaniment/strings, 6/8, emphasis on chorus)
Sing "After the Ball"
(6/8) mi, sol mi, la, mi, sol mi, la mi, ti,
fa, la fa, ti, fa, ti, ^mi re, mi
Tell me everything about "Maple Leaf Rag"
GENRE - ragtime
COMPOSER - Scott Joplin
FORM - multi-sectional, like marches (AABBCDCD, etc.)
MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS - piano piece, syncopated, oom pah,
Who was the "father of ragtime"?
Berlin was credited, but later Joplin has received more fame.
You hear a piece. It's a piano piece and obviously ragtime. It sounds like Super Mario Brothers.
"Maple Leaf Rag" (ragtime, Scott Joplin, multi-sectional, piano solo, syncopated, oompah)
Describe "Stars and Stripes Forever"
FORM - AABBCDCDC
COMPOSER - John Phillip Sousa
GENRE - March
MUSICAL CHARACTERISTICS -Trio has famous piccolo part and then the famous trombone part