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What is acute renal failure?
- Inability of a kidey to excrete metabolites at normal plasma levels.
- Inability to retan electrolytes under condition fo normal intake.
What is Anuria
- Not producing urine
- Complete cesseartion of urinary secretion
What is Fecaluria
Feces in the urine
What is Glocosuria
High Sugar Level in urine
What is Hematoria
What is polyria?
Urinating a lot.
What is nephroptosis?
Downward movement of kidney when erect
What is renal agenesis
absence of a functioning kidney
What is uremia?
Excess urea in blood stream
What is incontinence?
Involuntary passage of urine, commonly caused by the failure of voluntary control of the vesical and urethral sphin cters.
What is Vesicoureteral reflux?
Backward flow of urine to kidney
What is urinry tract infection?
infecton that frequently occurs in both adults and children are aused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
What are bladder calculi?
Stones that form the urinary bladder. Not as common as renal calculi but they can grow quite large. Makes urinating dfficult.
What is bifid renal pelvis?
Congenital anomaly where you have wo ureters from each kidney
What is cystisis?
- Inflammation of urnary bladder.
- Females are more prone.
What s hyderonephrosis?
Fluid in the kidney
What is mestastasis?
When a cancer spreads to anotehr area.
What is renal ectopia?
Kidneys of a fetus rise up into the abdomen
What is the concept of tomography?
When youre blurring something on purpose.
What is tomography?
Special type of imaging used to obtain a diagnostic image of a specific layer of tissue or object which is super imposed by other tissues
Convnetional tomogrpahy is...
When was tomography first developed?
What is the three elements of tomography?
What is the principle of tomography?
- syncrhonized moverment of two of the three elements of tomography which is :
- 1. Tube
- 2. Image receptor
What is the fulcrum?
Pivot point on which the tube and image receptor move.
The further soemething is away from the fulcrum the more it is...
Objects in are located at the fulcrum show up...
Sharper than whats not in the fulcrum
With a grater blur of an image, what happens to how you visualize the object at the fulcrum?
More blur = easier to visualize the fulcrum sharper.
The more the tube moves (greater angle of the tube), what happens to the blur?
It blurs more the more the tube moves above and below fulcrum
If theres more blur above and below the fulcrum, what does it mean for the cut?
You get a thinner slice of the object at fulcrum.
To get a thinner slice of the image, what do you do to the tube?
You angle the tube more.
What are some tomographic qualities?
- 1. Tomographic Amplitude
- 2. Exposure amplitude
- 3. blur
- 4. Fulcrum
- 5. Focal plane - where the fulcrum is ( 7, 8, 9 blah. )
- 6. Section thickness
- 7. Section interval
- 8. Dstance from fulcrum
- 9. Distance from image receptor
What is tomographic amplitude?
Total distance of tube travel
What is exposure amplitude?
Total distance tube travels during exposure.
What is focal plane?
Section, section level, layer height, object plane, and depth of focus.
Section or object plane, or the region within which the image exhhibits satisfactroyh recorded detail
What is section thickenss controleld by?
- Controlled by exposure angle.
- As exposure angle increases, thickness decreases.
What is sectio nitnerval?
distance between fulcrum levels.
What is blur?
objects outside focal plane that do not have good recorded detail.
Greater tomographic amplitude, greater the blur.
Further the fulcrum, the greater the blur.
OBjects outside focal plane has what kind of recorded detail?
Outside of focal planes does NOT have good recorded detail.
Greater ditsance from IR, greater the blur.
What kind of releationship does exposure ampltiude and blur have?
Has direct relationship.
More amplitude, more blur in direct proprotion.
Increased ampltiude = thinner cut/slice
As distance fro mthe image receptor increases...
What relationship does tube motion have with blur?
- diect relationship.
- More compelx the motion, thinner the cut.
If an objects logn axies lies the same direction the tube travels, what happens to the object in terms of blurriness?
object will not be effectively blurred unless it is a great distance from the plane of the fulcrum
Tomographic images vs static images, what happens to the contrast?
Tomographic images exhbit less contrast than static images of the same regions because of the decreased tissue density.
What is zonography?
- Tomo slices that has a narrow arc.
- (Less than 10 degree angle)
What is wide angle tomogrpsahy?
Useful with very small bone like those in the ear.
What is panoramc tomography?
used in dental radiography that goes around your mouth.
What is autotomography?
patient motion and the IR and the tube remain stationary " breathing techniques"
Like the wagging jaw for example
What is Computed Tomography?
Smilar to covnetiona tube that the tube and etectors move around a stationary patient.