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2012-06-14 15:56:46

Organelles, Cytosol
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  1. Organelles
    are specialized structures within the cell that have characteristic shapes; they preform specific functions in cellular growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
  2. cytoskeleton
    is a network of protein filaments that extends throughout the cytosol
  3. Cytoskeleton: Microfilaments
    these are the thinnest elements of the cytoskeleton.  they are composed of the protein actin and are most prevalent at the edge of the cell
  4. Cytoskeleton: Microvilli
    cell extensions: nonmotile, microscopic fingerlike projections of the plasma membrane
  5. Cytoskeleton: intermediate filaments
    • these filaments are thicker than microfilaments but thinner than microtubules.
    • -several different proteins can compose intermediate filaments which are exceptionally strong.
    • they are found in parts of the cell subject to stress, help stabelize the position of organelles, and help attach cells to one another. 
  6. Plasma membrane
    Fluid mosaic  lipid bilayer(phospholipids, cholestrol, and glycolipids) studded with proteins ; surrounds cytoplasm

    Function- protects cellular contents; makes contact with other cells; contains channels, transporters, receptors, enzymes, cell identity markers and linker proteins; mediates the enrty and exit of substances 
  7. Cytoplasm
    cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus-cytosol and organelles

    Function: site of all intracellular activities except those occuring in the nucleaus
  8. Cytosol
    composed of water, solutes, suspended particles, lipid droplets, and glycogen granuals

    Functions: medium in which many of the cell's metabolic reactions occur
  9. Cytoskeleton: Microtubules
    larges and longest of the cytoskeleton components
  10. Centrosome
    a pair of centrioles plus pericentriolar material

    Function: the pericentriolar material contain tubulins which are used for growth of the mitotic spindle and microtubule formation 
  11. Cilia and Flagella
    motile cell surface projections that contain 20 microtubules and a basal body

    Funtion: Cilia moves fluids over a cell's surface; flagella move an entire cell 
  12. Ribosome
    composed of two subunits containing ribosomal RNA and proteins; may be free in cytosol or attached to rough ER

    Functions: Protein synthesis 
  13. ER(Endoplasmic rericulum)
    membranous network of flattened sacs or tubules.  rough ER is covered by Ribosomes and is attached to the nucleus; smooth ER lacks ribosomes

    Function: Rough ER synthesis glycoproteins and phospholipids the are transferred to cellular organelles, inserted into the plasma membrane, or secrected during exocytosis.  Smooth ER synthesiszes fatty acids and steroides; inactivates or detoxifies drugs; removes the phosphate group from glucose 6 phosphate ; and stores and releases calcium ions in muscle cells. 
  14. Golgi complex
    consists of 20-30 flattened membranous sacs called cisternea; structurally and functionally divided into entry (cis) face, medial cisternea, and exit (trans) face.

    Function: Entry face accepts proteins from rough ER; medial cisternae form glycoproteins, glycolipids, and lipoproteins; exut face modifies the molecules further then sorts and packages them for transport to their destinations
  15. lysosome
    vesicles formed from the Golgi complex; contains digestive enzymes.

    Function: fuses with and digests contents of endosomes, pinocytic vesicles, and phagosomes and transports final products of digestion into cytosol; digests worn-out organelles (autophagy), entire cells (autolysis) and extracellular materials. 
  16. Peroxisome
    Vesicles containing oxidases(oxidation enzymes)  and catalase (decomposes hydrogen peroxide) 

    Function: oxidizes amino acids and fatty acids; detoxifies harmful substances, such as alcohol; produces hydrogen peroxide 
  17. Proteasome
    tiny barrel-shaped sturcture that contains proteases

    Function: degrades unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins by cutting them into small peptides 
  18. Mitochondrion
    consists of an outer and inner mitochondriral membrane, cristea and matrix

    function: Site of aerobic cellular repiration reactions that produce most of a cell's ATP 
  19. Nucleaus
    consists of a nuclear envelope with pores, nucleoli, and chromosomes, which exist as a tangle mass of chromatin in interphase cells

    Function: nuclearer pores control the movement of substances between the nucleus and cytoplasm, nucleoli produce ribosomes and chromosomes consist of genes that control cellular structure and direct cellular functions 
  20. nuclear envelope
    a double membrane that sperates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
  21. nuclear pore
    extend through the nulcear envelope; each nulcear pore consists of a large central opening and they control the movement of substances between the nucleus and cytoplasm through passive diffusion
  22. nucleoli
    spherical bodies that function in creating ribosomes.  Each nucleoli is simply a cluster of protein, DNA and RNA; it is not enclosed by a membrane.
  23. genes
    • hereditary untis found in the nucleus which control cellular structure and direct cellular activity
    • -Genes are arranged along chromosomes
  24. Chromatin
    the complex of RNA DNA and proteins is called chromatin