Signs and Symptoms

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  1. Normal Breathing rate for Adult 
    12-20 breaths/minute
  2. Normal Breathing rate for a child
    15-30 breaths/minute
  3. Normal Breathing Rate for infant
    25-50 breaths/minute
  4. How to open an airway in an infant?
    sniffing or neutral postion, do not hyperextend
  5. How to open and airway in a child
    slightly extend head and neck if no trauma is present
  6. How many breaths a minute for a infant?`
    one breath every 3 seconds (20 breaths a minute)
  7. What pulse would you use to obtain one in an infant?`
    Brachial pulse
  8. How fast should capillary refilling time take in an infant and child?
    2 seconds
  9. Age range for an infant?
    birth-2 years
  10. Age range for a child?
    2-10 years
  11. Age range for a newborn?
    birth-2 months
  12. Pulse rate for newborn?
    85-205 beats/minute or 140 beats for average
  13. Pulse rate for an infant?
    100-190 beats/minute or 130 beats/minute for average
  14. Pulse rate for child?
    60-140 beats per minute or 80 beats/minute for average
  15. Pulse rate for 11-adult
    60-100 beats/minute or average of 75 beats/minute
  16. What are some signs of COPD
    Shortness of breath, paitents may also use inhalded bronchodilators. Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis is a form of COPD. When adminstring oxgen the patient may experience hypoventilation or even respiratory arrest. Be alreat when giving oxygen to a COPD patient. Oxygen should not be withheld for COPD patients in shock, altered mental status or in severe respiratior distress.
  17. Signs of Chronic Bronchitis
    a cough that is present for atleast 3 months per year for atleast 2 years. Produces phlegm and auscultation of breath sounds may reveal wheezing or crackles.
  18. What are some signs or emphysema?
    Air traps in the patients lungs resulting in barrel chest. An apperance of pink in the skin resulting from an increase number of red blood cells in hemoglobin.
  19. Signs of pneumonia?
    upper respirtory tract infection. Common cold symptons. Fever and cough with the production of thick, colored sputum (containing pus). Chills. Complaints of Dyspnea, pain that increases with breathing or coughing, Crackles and dimished sounds.
  20. Patient complaints of a pulmonary embolism
    Diffculty breathing and chest pain that increases with breathing. May cough up bloody sputum. Calf tenderness, recent history of surgery. prolonged bed rest, and phlebitis of the leg veins. (rapid pulse and signs of shock)
  21. Signs of hyperventilation
    Shortness of breath, tingling in the mouth and fingers.
  22. Signs of a tension pneumothorax
    Dimished breath sounds on one side, distened neck veins as the vena cava is collapsed, low blood pressure, and deviation of the trachea to the other side
  23. Signs and symptons of inadequate circulation (shock, hypoperfusion)
    weakness or altered mental status, anxitey and restlessness, pale, cool and clammy skin. rapid, weak pulse.
  24. Signs and symptons of patients with ischemic chest pain
    intense pain such as crushing, pressing, tight, viselike, heavy, aching, or constricting. anterior chest and often radiates to the neck, jaw, either arm or shoulder (more often left). Pain last for several minutes often more than 30 and relived with rest or nitro.
  25. Signs of an abdominal aortic aneurysms.
    tearing, ripping or searing abdominal or back pain that localizes to the back. usually older and my have a history of hypertension or a known aneurysm. sensation of needing to move their bowls.
  26. 2 person rate for pediatric CPR
  27. What happens when No shock is advised?
    you should perform 5 cycles of cpr, check a pulse and reanalyze.
  28. CPR with et tube inplace
    Continuous CPR is provided, Approximately 8-10 breaths per minute.
  29. 2 person CPR ratio
    30:2 1 second each for breaths
  30. how far away should you place a AED pad from the Pacemaker?
    At least one inch to the side.
  31. Signs and symptons of imminent delivery
    crowning is evident, bloody show, contractions are strong, less than 2 minutes apart, and last 60-90 seconds, need to move bowels, strong urge to push.
  32. when do you perform the apgar score?
    one minute after birth and repeated 5 minutes after birth
  33. what does apgar stand for?
    apperance, pulse, grimace, activity, respirations
  34. What is the apgar scoring chart?
    Apperance: blue=0, pink with blue extremties=1 pink=2

    Pulse: absent=0, less than 100 beats=1, more than 100=2

    Grimace: no response=0, grimace=1, Vigorous cry= 2

    Activity: limp=0, some flexion=1, flexed limbs= 2

    Respirations: not breathing=0, weak respirations=1, crying=2
  35. what is the normal apgar score?
    9 with blue extreminties
  36. Shoulder Dystocia
    Suction the babies mouth and transport the mother while supporting the babies head
  37. Breech delivery
    Transport the patient on left side with with the hips elevated, and high concentrate oxygen
  38. how long should you try to delvier a breech delivery before transport?
    3 minutes, and put hand in vagina and elevate the babies head off the vagina so they can breathe
  39. limb presentation
    put mother on left side, elevate hips and provide high concentration oxygen.
  40. prolapsed cord
    elevate the mothers hips with pillows, or place in knee chest position. put hand in vagina and elevate the babies head, rapid transport and high concentration oxygen
  41. Postpartum hemorrhage
    defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml after delivery
  42. symptons for a ectopic pregnancy
    begin 4-6 weeks in pregnancy, amenorrhea (abesent of menstrual periods) localized abdominal pain that may radiate to the shoulder area. Ectopic pregnancy is often mistaken for appendicitis.
  43. Artery bleeding
    spurting, red, deeper vessels.
  44. Capillary bleeding
    coninuous oozing, dark red, superficial
  45. Vein Bleeding
    Continous, dark red or purple, superficial flow
  46. Hidden blood loss in Hemithorax
    2L 40%
  47. Hidden blood loss in Abdomen
    3L 50%
  48. Hidden blood loss in Femur
    1L 20%
  49. Hidden blood loss in pelvis
    .5L 10% per fracture
  50. Hidden blood loss in Skull
    not signifcant unless in infant
  51. 15% blood loss
    Vein contract, no signs or symptons
  52. 15%-30%
    Epinephrine response, Arteries constrict to maintain blood pressure, reducing flow to skin, gut and muscle, increased heart rate. Rapid and thready  pulse. cool, pale, clammy skin. Thrist, weakness, Fainting or dizzyness. Anxiety, rapid shallow breathing. Delayed capillary refilling time. Blood pressure may be normal
  53. 30-45% Blood Loss
    Decompensation, cardiac output falls  to half of normal. Hypotension, deteriorated mental status, combativness, restlessness, rapid, shallow respirations
  54. Adult pulse rates
    60-80, average is 72
  55. Rate of postive pressure ventilation for Child
    20 breaths/minute 1-1.5 seconds to adminster a breath
  56. Rate of postive ventilation for an infant
    20 breaths a minute or 1-1.5 seconds to adminster a breath
  57. Rate of postive pressure ventilation for an adult
    12 breaths a minute or 1-2 seconds to adminsters a breath
  58. 1-3 days for a bruise
  59. 3-7 days for a brusie
  60. over a week for a bruise
  61. over three weeks for a bruise
    brown to clearing
  62. What chamber of the heart pumps blood into the lungs?
    The right ventricle pumps oxygen-poor blood into the lungs
  63. What is the proper order of organs all the way to trachea?
    Oropharynx, epiglottis, glottic opening, vocal cords, cricoid cartilage, trachea
  64. What does the term GPAL stand for?
    • Gravida-how many pregnancies
    • Para- how many viable births
    • Abortions- how many abortions
    • Living- how many living children 
  65. What can hymenopterans cause?
    Can cause anaphylactic reactions. They are inscets that produce unique venom that cause reaction
  66. What can skull fractures or brain injurys present with?
    Slow but strong pulse. 
  67. What are dark tarry stools known as?
  68. What are oxygen readings for hypoxia?
    95-91 indicate mild hypoxia, below 91 is considered significant hypoxia
  69. What does pulse oximetry measure?
    the percentage of hemoglobin saturated by oxygen
  70. How many resucers should be involved with an extremity lift?
    the extremity lift involves two responders 
  71. What has the greatest effect on the chain of survial?
    Early defibrillation
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Signs and Symptoms
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