Theory of adjustment to aging that suggests older people are happier if they remain active in some way.
The period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult.
Gradual changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive system of males.
The emotional bond between an infant and the primary caregiver.
Disorder chracterized by lack of impuse control, inability to concentrate and hyperactivity.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Parenting style that involves combining firm limits on behavior combined with love, warmth, affection, respect and a willingness to listen.
Second stage of personality development in which the toddler strives for physical independence.
Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt
Consonant and vowel sounds representing the second stage of language development, usually occurring around 6 months of age.
In Piaget's theory, the tendency of a young child to focus on only one feature of an object while ignorning other, relevant features.
Tightly wound strand of genetic material (or DNA).
The development of thinking, problem solving and memory.
The moment at which a females becomes pregnant.
Third stage of cognitive development in which the school-age child becomes capable of logical thought processed, but is not yet capable of abstract thinking.
Concrete Operational Stage
Often called Siamese twins, occurring from an incomplete separation of the zygotic cells.
In Piaget's theory, the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature.
Varible of tactile sensation that was proposed by Harry Harlow to be an important component in the formation of attachment.
Second level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by conforming to the society's norms of behavior.
Vowel-like sounds made by babies around 2 months of age representing the first stage of language development.
Times during which some environment influence can have an impact on the development of an infant.
Research design in which several different age groups of participants are studied at one particular point in time.
Research design in which participants are first studied by means of a cross-sectional design, but also followed and assessed for a period of no more than six years.
Often called fraternal twins, occurring when two eggs each get fertilized by two different sperm, resulting in two zygotes in the uterus at the same time.
Special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism.
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
Referring to a gene that actively controls the expression of a trait.
Eighth and final stage of Erikson's model of development in which the goal is to develope a sense of wholeness that comes from having lived a full life and the ability to let go of regrets, the final completion of the ego.
Ego Integrity Versus Despair
The inability to see the world through anyone else's eyes.
1926-2004. Swiss psychiatrist known for her work with dying patinets and her proposed theory of five stages of dying.
Name for the developing organism from 2 weeks to 8 weeks after fertilzation.
The period from 2 to 8 weeks after fertilization, during which the major organs and structures of the organism develop.
1902-1994. Developmental psychologist trained in the methods of psychoanalysis who proposed a theory of personality development based on a series of emotional crises.
The union of the ovum and sperm.
The time from about 8 weeks until the birth of the child.
Name for the developing organism from 8 weeks after fertiliation to the birth of the baby.
Piaget's last stage of cognitive development in which the adolescent becomes capable of abstract thinking.
Formal Operational Stage
The behavior associated with being male or female.
Perception of one's gender and the behavior that is associated with that gender.
Section of DNA having the same arrangement of chemical elements.
Seventh stage of Erikson's model of personality deveolopment in which the crisis involves providing guidance to one's children or the next generation, contributing to the well-bing of the next generation through career or volunteer work or developing a sense of stagnation.
Generativity Versus Stagnation
The science of inherited traits.
First 2 weeks after fertilization, during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining.
Single word utterances seen universally in the stages of language development.
The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age, from conception utnil death.
Fifth stage of personality development in which the adolescent must find a consistent sense of self.
Identity Versus Role Confusion
Type of thought common to adolescents in which younger people believe that other people are just concerned about the adolescent's thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are.
Fourth stage of personality development in which the adolescent strives for a sense of compentence and self-esteem.
Industry Versus Inferiority
Third stage of personality development in which the preschool-aged child strives for emotional and psychological independence, and attempts to satisfy curiousity about the world.
Initiative Versus Guilt
Sixth stage of Erikson's model of personality development in which an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share and care, while still maintaining one's sense of self is developed.
Intimacy Versus Isolation
In Piaget's theory, the inability of the young child to mentally reverse an action.
1896-1980. Swiss developmental psychologist who proposed a four-stage theory of cognitive development based on the concept of mental operations.
1927-1987. Developmental psychologist known for his theory on the development of moral reasoning.
1896-1934. Russian developmental psychologist who emphasized the role of the social environment on cognitive development and proposed the idea of zones of proximal development.
Research design in which one participant or group of participants is studied over a long period of time.
The cessation of ovulations and menstrual cycles and the end of a woman's productive capability.
Identical twins formed when one zygote splits into two separate masses of cells, each of which develops into a separate embryo.
The influence of our inheritied characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth and social interaction.
The influence of the enviornment characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth and social interaction.
The knowledge that an object exists even when it is not in sight.
The female sex cell, or egg.
Parenting style in which the parent puts very few demands on the child for behavior.
Permissive parenting style in which the parents seem to be too involved with their children, allowing them to act any way they wish.
Permissive parenting style in which the parents are not involved with their children.
Type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unqiue and protected from harm.
A trait or charateristic that is determined by more than one gene pair.
Third level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the person's behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided upon by the indivudals and which may be in disagreement with accepted social norms.
First level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by the consquences of the behavior.
Pieget's second stage of cognitive development in which the preschool child learns to use language as a means of exploring the world.
The physical changes that occur in the body as secual development reaches its peak.
Referring to a gene that only influences the expression of a trait when paired with an identical gene.
Process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable.
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development in which the infant uses its senses and motor abilities to intereact with objects in the environment.
A mental concept formed through expriences with objects and events.
Type of speech in which words are left out of a sentence but the meaning of the sentence remains. such as "want cookie" to mean "I would like a cookie".
The behavior characteristics that are fairly well established at birth, such as easy, difficult and slow-to-warm-up.
Any factor that can cause a birth defect.
First stage of personality development in which the infant's basic sense of trust or mistrust develops as a result of consistent or inconsistent care.
Trust Versus Mistrust
Vygotsky's concept of the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a more skilled teacher.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Cell resulting from the unting of the ovum and sperm.