Card Set Information
Long carbon chains with COOH end
Saturated Fatty Acids vs. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
double C=C bond
Unsaturated = One or more C=C bonds
3C Glycerol backbone + 3 fatty acids chains attached
Important energy storage molecule
3C Glycerol backbone + 2 fatty acid chains + 1 phosphate group
Type of lipid that regulates metabolic activities
: hormones, cholesterol, Vit D
Type of lipid
: Prostaglandins, leukotrienes
How are lipids transported in the blood stream?
Via lipoproteins & Albumin
: VLDL(bad) --- HDL (good)
Bonds found in proteins
Bonds found in carbohydrates
Bonds found in nucleis acids
Basic amino acids
Acidic amino acids
Polar amino acids
Cysteine (forms covalent disulfide bonds)
Nonpolar amino acids - I saw Lucy methodically probe and feel Alan, then Val tripped glycine
Methionine (start amino acid)
Proline (turn-inducing & affects tertiary structure)
How many amino acids are there and of those how many are essential?
20 amino acids total -- 10 of which are essential.
Amino acid structure
Forces creating tertiary structure
1. Disulfide bonds
2. Ionic interactions between side chains
4. Van der Waals
5. Hydrophobic side chains being pushed away from protein center
Tubulin - which polymerized to form MTs in flagella & cilia
Maintain and strengthen cellular matrix
Describe the two anomeric forms of glucose
1. Alpha-glucose: anomeric carbon and methoxy carbon are on opposite ends of the ring
2. Beta-glucose: anomeric and methoxy carbons are on same side of the ring
Types of glucose linkages
1. Alpha: Digested by animals - starch & glycogen
2. Beta: Digested by bacteria - cellulose (bacteria break beta linkages)
Where are the largest amounts of glucose found?
The mucles and liver
How is glucose absorbed into most cells?
1. Mostly via facilitated diffusion
2. Or by secondary active transport fown the [Na+] gradient
What kind of cells can absorb glucose in the absence of insulin?
Neurons and hepatic cells
Components of a nucleotide
1. 5C pentose sugar
2. Nitrogenous base
3. Phosphate group
How many H-bonds are formed between the nitrogenous bases?
A&T form 2 H-bonds
C&G form 3 H-bonds
Directionality in which a nucleic acid is written and read?
5'--->3' (leading strand)
What is ATP?
What about NADH?
What about Mg2+?
ATP is a nucleotide
NADH is a coenzyme
Mg+ is a cofactor (assist in enzyme fxn, minerals)
Non-competitive enzymatic inhibition
Binds to somewhere other than active site
Does NOT change enzyme-substrate affinity
Decreases reaction rate
Competitive enzymatic inhibition
Binds to the active site and thus, decreases enzyme-substrate affinity
Does not change reaction rate
Can be overcome by adding more substrate
Irreversible enzymatic inhibition
Covalently binds to enzymes
Types of enzymatic regulation (4)
1. Proteolytic cleavage (zymogen-->active enzyme)
2. Covalent modification (phosphorylation)
3. Protein subunit regulation (GPCRs)
4. Allosteric modulation (positive cooperativity)
**Allosteric modulation results in a conformational change
Kinases vs. Phosphatases
Kinases phosphorylate & usually deactivate
Importance of cofactors?
Not all enzymes need cofactors
that activate an exzyme by binding to it
They help out enzyme catalyzed reaction by
and being oxidized or reduced