CH 602 Test 2

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  1. 1.  Explain why the Reformed Reformation could be
    called "a refugee Reformation."
    • Type of thing seen during Mary's reign in England: exiles
    • found haven in the continent until her reign ended

     This will permeate Europe until the 1600s. In Fr. illegal to be a Protestant (cf  Huguenots ); refugee character will color the Ref until the 1800s
  2. Identify Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin as the
    leaders of the Reformation in Zurich and Geneva respectively.
    • Zwingli:
    • Preaching and writings--commitment to Biblicism;
    • his exegesis tends to be less allegorical, more expository.

    Influenced Calvin. Calvinism is inconceivable without the Zurich Reformation.

    Pivotal role in development of the doctrine of the eucharist (the memorial view is credited to him, although in incipient form).

    • ·        
    • Social and political aspects of reform--respublica christiana

    Probably the most deliberate reformer of all the early Protestants

    Successor: Heinrich (Henry) Bullinger, who left more significant written legacy that Z able to make.
  3. 3. Describe the geographical extent of the Reformed Reformation.
    • o    Zwingli, Calvin (Zurich, Geneva)--both are Swiss Ref
    • leaders

    o    France--in 1530s due to Fr translation of the Bible; but nation soon rejected it (men like Calvin thus had to flee for their lives). 

    o    Netherlands (through 16th c. battle between Reformed and Catholic). By 16th c leaders will declare for the Ref

    • England, then Scotland, then America:
    • o    England became increasingly Reformed
    • o    Scotland--led by Geo Wishart, succeeded by John Knox. Knox went to Geneva then came back to Scotland
    • o    Through these filters the Ref cam to America
  4. 4. Explain why Zwingli is often "overlooked."
    Prominent in Zurich (both start with Z)

    • 1.   Called "a tool of the devil" by Luther (at the failed Marburg Colloquy)
    • 2.   Overshadowed by John Calvin in Upper Germany and Switzerland (and to some extent, Beza)
    • 3.   Violent and early death on the battlefield of Kappel (1531)
  5. Enumerate the steps in Zwingli's reformation of Zurich, noting especially the "pivotal year" of 1523.
    January 1, 1519,began preaching only from the Scripture

    1520  The Town Council began implementing some reforms 

     some of Z's followers ate sausages during Lent. 

    • 1523.
    • Jan 29: First Zurich Disputation.  Town Council adopted Z's 67 articles, and thus becomes the first Prot town (by political determination).

    July--Z addresses the adoration of Mary and other saints. Then will defend the sole authority of the Bible.

    • Oct 26--Second Disputation, dealing with the Mass and the use of images. Will decide against these as worship
    • forms. Z implements slowly toward the abolition of the Mass. Will not effect until April 1525.
    • Good principle: "Always teach before you move."
    • June, 1524: images began to be removed.
    • Oct 1524: leading monastery was disbanded.

    • (Jan 1525) Third Disputation. Called b/c reforms not happening quickly enough for some people. Primary Issue: infant baptism. May have privately supported doing away with it, but Swiss Brethren breaking from him ("radical reformers"). Town Council declares that
    • re-baptism was illegal, and executes several of these by drowning.
  6. 2. Explain what is meant by "Always teach before you move."
    • It is wise to take the time to thoroughly work
    • through subjects biblically before leading people in change, especially major changes. Zwingli laid the foundation of expository teaching beginning in 1519 before major changes occurred in later years.
  7. 3. Describe Zwingli's views of baptism and how these views affected the Swiss Brethren.
    In the Third Disputation (Jan 1525), the Primary Issue: infant baptism. Z. may have privately supported doing away with it, except for Swiss Brethren breaking from him ("radical reformers"). Town Council declares that re-baptism was illegal, and executes several of these by drowning.
  8. 4. Differentiate the Magisterial from the Radical (Free Church) reformers.
    These two streams are distinct, yet inseparable. In fact, one would involuntarily serve as the womb for the other.

    • Reformers (Magisterial) 
    • 1.   Desired to REFORM the church from the Word
    • (Regulative principle).
    • 2.   Emphasized theology
    • 3.Resisted ecclesiology of the Separatism (Free Church) to concentrate on standardizing the theological base

    • Free Church (Radical)
    • 1.   Desired to REBUILD the church from the Word
    • (Regulative principle). 
    • 2.   Emphasized ecclesiology and practical theology
    • (e.g., purity of the church, polity, relation to the state, responsibility to the state, etc.)
    • 3.   Drew from the Reformer's theology, but in their emphasis on practice, generally manifested continuing
    • theological weakness.

    The tension between the two streams leads to open conflict, polarization, and extremes.

    • It also leads to groups from within the Reformation gradually attempting to wrestle with the "non-essential"
    • ecclesiastical questions while attempting to preserve doctrinal integrity.
  9. Describe the influence and significance of
    Zwingli for his own day as well as for the reforms that followed.
    • Influenced Calvin. Calvinism is inconceivable without the Zurich Reformation.        
    • Pivotal role in development of the doctrine of the eucharist (the memorial view is credited to him, although in incipient form).
    • Social and political aspects of his reform--respublica
    • christiana
    • Probably the most conscious (deliberate) reformer of all the early Protestants
  10. 6. Identify Heinrich (Henry) Bullinger and his significance.
    • Successor to Z.  
    • Z difficult to follow b/c Z was so bombastic.
    • Much more significant written legacy than Z was able to
    • make.
  11. 7. Identify the major contributions of John Calvin.
    • Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536 (written at 27 but revised much later on)
    • The Catechism, 1545 (reduced many ref. docrines to teachable form)
    • The Zurich Consensus,1549. The document that unites the Zurich and Genevan ref views on the Lord's Table. Sometimes called "the consensus tigurinus." (Tigur in another name for Zurich)
    • Founding of the Geneva Academy (1559). Education must occur if the Ref was to go forward.
  12. 8. Explain the importance of the Zurich Consensus (Consensus Tigurinus).
    • ·        
    • The Zurich Consensus,1549. The document unites
    • the Zurich and Genevan ref views on the Lord's Table. Sometimes called "the consensus tigurinus." (Tigur in another name for Zurich)
  13. 9. Describe Calvin's association with Nicholas Cop and how this association forced his flight from France.
    • Calvin had grown up in France; studied at University of Paris;  While at school in Paris, JC meets Nicolas Cop. By their friendship JC exchanges his Roman Catholicism for a biblical view of the gospel. JC gives speech (that Cop helped write) that shocks the school and requires both to flee for their lives.
    • 1534--nearly 3 dozen Prot heretics burned at Paris. Others will be executed as consequence of their belief
  14. 10. Name the major mentors of Calvin: William (Gillaume) Farel and Peter Viret.
    • o  Farel warned JC of God's judgment if he wouldn't stay and help lead the Ref there. "prophetic fire and tenacity."
    • o    Viret influenced JC for calm moderation
  15. 1. Explain how Calvin functioned as a "mediating" figure in
    the Reformation.
    JC expended much effort to effect reconciliation among Reformers as possible.

    • · In 1536, agrees to Wittenberg Concord;
    • · accepted Augsburg Confession (1540)
    • sought agreement with Bullinger (Zwingli's successor, in the Consensus Tigerinus; 1543--models later Institutes after Melancthon's Lokey Communes.

    Purpose: to bolster his own people, but also to enable other Prots to defend the doctrines of the Faith.
  16. Explain how Calvin provided a visionary ministry as a mentor to Christians of Reformed leanings across Europe.
    Much diversity in the dedicatees of his works. E.g., commentary on Daniel dedicated to the Huguenots of France; two commentaries dedicated to Edward VI; others to Elisabeth; Duke of Wurtemburg; Sigismund (king of Poland); included letters to various locations and leaders. They encourage and nurture the seeds of the Reformation. (Calvin's works constitute 59 vols., which include sermons, treatises, and tracts.)

    • Role in Fr. Reformation:
    • §  Calvin interceded on behalf of the Huguenots
    • to the German Schmalkaldic League.
    • §  provided doctrinal leadership in formulating French Confessional statements.
    • §  Sent letters of encouragement to beleaguered Huguenots.
    • §  Provided and trained missionaries to pastor churches in Fr
  17. Describe how Calvin attempted to restore proper worship in the church.
    Cunningham, p. 27: (summary)--JC's contributions greater in regard to church organization than any other. Comparable to Newton's unfolding the solar system! 

    • Forms of instruction for the church:
    • o    For pastors: Institutes and Biblical Commentaries. 
    • o once trained through the Institutes and Commentaries, the pastors were to teach the Catechism of 1545 to the people and encourage them to read the Scriptures
    • o   For pastors: preach through the Bible continuously, explaining and applying the text
  18. 5. List lessons we can draw from Calvin's life.
    • o    The importance of mentoring and being mentored (viz., Farel, Viret, Bucer).
    • o    Importance of the long view in ministry (compare with Luther)
    • o    "The degree of true success is measured by the degree of Scriptural understanding that results."
    • o    The value of pastoral industry.
    • o    Oftenwhen God does a significant transforming spiritual work, He coordinates it in His will with transformations on other levels (e.g., history of Geneva).
    • o    Historywill likely misjudge even a good man who leaves full explanations of his beliefs and actions.
  19. 6. List differences between Luther and Calvin.
    Luther (1483-1546)

    • A Saxon peasant; father a miner
    • Entered the Order of Augustinian Hermits, took a monk's vows, was made a priest, married a nun
    • Eloquence made him popular by its force, humor, and  rudeness
    • Writes German well; pioneer in modern development of native tongue
    • mystic; wrote tracts, pamphlets and treatises but did not put his thinking into neat systematic form
    • "Luther's ultimate religious act was an utter trust in a redeeming Savior, his ultimate text 'the just shall live by faith'" (Chadwick, 93).

    • Calvin (1509-1564)
    • Sprang from the French middle-class his father, an attorney, purchased the freedom of the City of Noyon, where he practice civil and canon law
    • Never was ordained in the RCC;training was chiefly in law and the humanities; took no vows
    • Spoke to the learned, even when preaching to congregation; manner was classical with systematic reasoning; little humor; instead of striking with bombasitic rhetoric, he uses deadly logic
    • Writes Fr well; pioneer in the modern development of his native tongue
    • A scholastic systematizer; weighed his arguments carefully and wrote in well-turned phrases
    • Influenced western civilization far more
    • "Calvin's ultimate religious act was the assent of the will to an everlasting Lord; his ultimate text, 'thy will be done'" (Chadwick, 93).
  20. 1. Explain the origin and meaning of the term Counter-Reformation.
    Terminology ("Counter-reformation") began with von Ranke in 1833.

    20th cent. Hubert Jedin clarified and standardized the terms, so that the Cath and Counter Refs are seen as two streams in the same Roman Catholic reformation
  21. 2. Differentiate the terms Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation.
    The Protestant Ref shared some traits with the Catholic Ref; The Counter Ref eventually merged with the Catholic Ref (1651, 53).
  22. 3. Define Observant monastic movements.
    The Catholic Church hierarchy initially resisted the "Catholic" Reformation (smaller groups desiring moral and ethical reform were not well received initially)

    ·   Observant monastic movements (such as Franciscan, etc.) dedicated to the founding principles (Also Augustinian and Benedictine)

    • Devotia moderna was another movement stressing
    • relationship with God
    • Christian humanism (e.g., Erasmus)--saw effectiveness of tools such as classic learning and lit. to help reform the church
  23. 4. Note examples of abuses the Catholic church tried to address.
    superstitiuous practices permitted or embraced by priests; clerical ignorance; clerical laziness or neglect; poor institutional administration; moral laxity; secularism; monastic corruption;commercializing religious practices (i.e., indulgences, offices); absenteeism (absence of bishops from dioceses and priests from parishes); pluralism
  24. 5. List characteristics of the Catholic/Counter-Reformation.
    • Deliberate: took about 30 years did the Catholic church officially mobilize to counter Protestantism
    • B.   Catholicism's formal response was slow, but comprehensive, sustained, and effective
    • --how long? Historians differ; some 1648; some 1770; some think it even continues to today, with Vatican I and

    • Goals met:
    • o    Identified itself doctrinally as anti-Augustinianembraced Aquinas' theology
    • o    Identified itself administratively (with new force); culminates with doctrine of papal infallibility in 1870 (saying that is what the church believed all along)
    • C.  Constituted Rome's self-preservation
    • (preservation of Roman authority and character)
    • Period of re-idenification; reclamation; reinforcement
    • 3stated goals: lead needed reform; clarify truth (defining heresy); restore the peace and unity of the church (which included recovery of land lost to Protestantism)
  25. 1. List examples of Catholic monastic/devotional revival.
    • Oratory of Divine Love (started 1517)--highly devotional movement of both clergy and laymen; several popes emerged from this group over the next century.
    • --came very close to embracing justification by faith (viewed it as a long-hidden jewel); many members served on a 9-member commission called by Paul III.

    •  Reorganized Franciscans --Capuchins
    • ("long-pointed hood"), pressed for even further reform

    Theatines (1524) arose out of Oratory of Divine Love; smaller group than the others

    Barnabites (Milan)

    Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
  26. 2. Contrast Protestantism and Catholicism.
    • Protestantism
    • Encouraging faith in invisible
    • Liberating to serve in love
    • Priesthood of the believer

    • Catholicism
    • Empirical
    • Conscription to serve
    • Absolutism of church authority
  27. 3. Describe the nature of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
    • Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Frequently mentioned Jesus' name,
    • Today the most populated order;
    • intense training (typically about 10 yrs).  
    • Jesuits have a world-wide vision; took normal vows, but also a vow of special obedience to the Pope.
    • Motto: for the greater glory of God.
    • Played formative roles at Trent and other Counter-reformation enterprises.
    • They are the special forces of the Papacy.
  28. 4. Identify the various national reformations of Catholicism.
    • National churches were to take the leadership on reforms
    • within their own countries
    • -e.g., Spain was cleaning its own house under Cardinal Jimenez; also France and England

    • Growth in the use of concordats (agreements between papacy and national leaders)
    • 1100-1516    6 concordats
    • 1700-1800   15
    • 1800-1900   26

    Now the papacy acts like head of state; no church council called; deals unilaterally with nations and groups
  29. 5. Explain how the papacy used concordats rather than councils for reform.
    Rome has recognized 21 ecumenical Councils; councils 18 and 19 took place in the 16th century. After Trent in 1545, no council was held by the church until 1870!

    ·Council of Trent (1545-1563)  see Appendix E

    • ·Occurred in 3 different sessions
    • ·Council increasingly became influenced by less conciliar, more uncompromisingvoices
    • Growth in the use of concordats (agreements between papacy and national leaders)

    • 1100-1516    6 concordats
    • 1700-1800   15
    • 1800-1900   26

    Now the papacy acts like head of state; no church council called; deals unilaterally with nations and groups
  30. 6. Describe the Inquisition and the Index of Forbidden Books.
    • 1542--Roman Inquisition. Brings an inquisitorial court on the side of the papacy. Powerful church tribunal commissioned to inquire into the facts when accusations were brought.
    • Index of Forbidden Books (second half of 16th cent.). Compiled a library of books catholics could not read or use upon penalty of standing before the inquisition. Some were works of unbelievers, but many others banned were works of protestants.
  31. 7. Define Apocrypha or deuterocanonical books.
    Apocryphal ("hidden away"): They are 14 books which were included in the Vulgate and accepted in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox canon but considered noncanonical by Protestants because they are not part of the Hebrew Scriptures. "Deuterocanonical" ("second canon") because they are not considered part of the canon of scripture, but may have merit in other ways.
  32. 8.    Delineate the two Catholic postures toward the
    Prot Reformation.
    zero tolerance or attempt to reconcile; as seen at the Diets of Speyer, and the Augsburg Confession
  33. 9. Discuss the work and results of the Council of Trent.
    • o    Tridentine (from Tridentum--Lat. For Trent)
    • o    Trent prunes the branches and shapes it into the image of Rome

    • o    Results of Trent:
    • 1.It elevated the papacy. Only those reforms agreed to by the pope were passed.
    • 2.It maintained much of the church status quo. (Cleaned it up some, but left it much the same).
    • Conservative--made no allowance for Christian Humanism or liberal Catholicism
    • 3.   It greatly improved the quality of bishops and clergy to give a proper lead to the Catholic laity.
    • 4.   It provided a clearly defined Catholic doctrine.
    • 5.   It empowered a centralized church government.
  34. 2. List lessons learned from the Catholic Reformation.
    • A. Vitality is not necessarily spirituality (much movement, agitation, organization in the 1540s. So much self-preservation; but it wasn't necessarily of God).
    • B. Spirituality is not necessarily Christianity (e.g., Oratory of Divine Love, etc.)
    • C. Truth is strongest when declared with clarity; error is exposed most when it is defined fully. (Trent enables Protestants to identify the errors of Rome).
    • D. Assurance of salvation can be a powerful motivation in evangelizing Catholics; Trent anathematizes someone who maintains it.
    • E. What the Protestants could not do--unify and organize--Roman Catholicism managed to do.
  35. Describe how Protestantism seemed poised for
    advance at the dawn of the 17th century.
    • ·   Rulers could choose the religions of their territories
    • ·  Those who wished to migrate elsewhere could do so
    • ·   All Prots had to subscribe to the Confession of Augsburg; others were considered heretics
    • · Genevan and Zurich schools unite around the Heidelberg catechism.
    • ·  They with Bullinger in Zurich carry forward the Reformation and bring more unity to the reform movement.
  36. Identify Heidelberg as the influential center of German Calvinism and Frederick III, elector-palatine, as a leading figure of that movement.
    German Calvinism had developed and its headquarters in Germany had been Heidelberg (in the Palatinate) since 1559.

    • Heidelberg became a second Wittenberg. Embraced reformation, attempting to harmonize ref's of Zurich, Geneva, and Wittenberg.
    • Leader: Frederick III (the Pious). Elector of the Palatinate, ruled 1559-1576. One of the 7 who elected the Emperor.
    • 1560, will ransom a young prisoner (Casper Olevianus) who had tried to rescue Frederick's son, and paid for his theological training, then brought him to Heidelberg.
    • Ursinus, a pupil of Melanchthon's, put in charge of Univ or Heidelberg. Ursinus publishes Heidelberg Catechism in effort further unite reforms. Genevan and Zurich schools unite around the Heidelberg catechism.

    They with Bullinger in Zurich carry forward the Reformation and bring more unity to the reform movement.

    Frederick attempting to "sweep away the leftover papal dung from Christ's stable." Reformed man in Lutheran empire espousing Reformed theology. Maintained he was self taught from the Bible. By turn of 17the cent., 1 in 16 Prots in Germany are Reformed.
  37. Identify the Wittelsbach and Habsburg families and their respective religious connections.
    30 YW was primarily a battle between 2 dynasties: Whittlesbach family (which had strong Catholic element)--had the line of the Fredericks in it; and the competing Hapsburg (or Habsburg) dynasty.
  38. 2. Identify the four phases of the Thirty Years' War.
    • A.   Bohemian phase (1618-1623). Bohemia was Prot, and part of the HRE; but dominated by the
    • Catholic Habsburg family. Ferdinand as King of Bohemia (and will become emperor) tries to suppress the Prots by revoking privileges formerly enjoyed by these non-Catholics.

    • Defenestration of Prague--two Catholic officers approach Bohemian Diet with Ferdinand's terms; the Diet threw
    • them out of a window and they landed into a compost heap. The men were fairly unharmed, but the Diet deposed Ferdinand and instead selected Frederick V, a
    • Reformed member of the Wittlesbach family. Fred V was a member of the Palatinate, thus an elector of the emperor. This also tips the balance of electors to the Protestants (4 to 3) which upsets the Catholics. Fred V accepts as a divine calling, and attempts to quickly impose reforms upon the Bohemians who invited him. The Lutheran populace did not receive these well, however! The Bohemian division leaves them unprepared to defend themselves against the Catholics, who will invade to avenge the embarrassment given to King Ferdinand.

    This war will progress from being national (primitive Germany) to increasingly international.

    B.   Danish phase (1625-29). Danes came to the aid of Germany. Catholic troops invaded Heidelberg; punitively took its exceptional library. Some Luth princes would not support the Reformed king in some battles, which hurt the Prot cause. Seeing the Habsburg troops encroaching northward toward them, the Danes attempt to retard their advance while still on German soil. Not being successful, they sign an Edict of Restitution, which was an enforcement of the ecclesiastical reservation of the Peace of Augsburg. It is heavy-handed by Ferdinand.

    C.  Swedish Phase (1630-32). Gustavus Adolphus, a Protestant king (the "Snow King"). Renowned for his personal virtue and success in battle, but ultimately defeated and Protestantism suffered setbacks due to that.

    • D. French Phase  (Cardinal Richelieu) (1635- ??). A Cardinal who sides with Prots due to not wishing to see
    • Catholic troops invade France. This confirms that the war had degenerated from initial religious reasons to national and personal agendas.
  39. 3. Identify the Defenestration of Prague.
    • Defenestration of Prague--
    • two Catholic officers approach Bohemian Diet with Ferdinand's terms;
    • Diet threw them out of a window and they landed into a compost heap.
    • the Diet deposed Ferdinand and instead selected Frederick V, a Reformed member of the Wittlesbach family.
    • Fred V was a member of the Palatinate, thus an elector of the emperor. This also tips the balance of electors to the Protestants (4 to 3) which upsets the Catholics. Fred V accepts as a divine calling, and attempts to quickly impose reforms upon the Bohemians who invited him. The Lutheran populace did not receive these well, however! The Bohemian division leave them unprepared to defend themselves against the Catholics, who will invade to avenge the embarrassment given to King Ferdinand.
  40. 1. List ramifications of the Peace of Westphalia.
    • · Salvaged Protestantism from dramatic territorial losses (restored map of Europe to the 1624 phase)
    • ·  Extended Peace of Augsburg to include Calvinism and all Reformed faiths (now considered allowable religions)
    • ·  Depicted exhaustion--religious toleration by
    • default; battle fatigue
    • · The war had decimated the German population, agriculture, commerce, and industry (anywhere from 15-50% of the German population died as a result of the war, whether directly or indirectly)
    • ·  With the peace of Westphalia the modern era begins. Ends wars where religion is primary motivation.
    • ·  Also creates the modern state, which exerts controls
    • which had previously been seen primarily by the church.
    • ·  Changes: cannons made castles not the fortresses they once were
  41. Describe the ways in which the 17th century saw the birth of the "modern" world.
    • ·  With the peace of Westphalia the modern era begins. Ends wars where religion is primary motivation.
    • · Also creates the modern state, which exerts controls which had previously been seen primarily by the church.
    • · Changes: cannons made castles not the fortresses they once were
  42. Define scholasticism.
    the application of a neutral methodology; by itself it is not prejudiced and it is not inherently exclusively reason-based
  43. 4. Enumerate obstacles to the "resurrection" of scholasticism.
    • • The major Prot Reformers' attack on the theology of the medieval schoolmen
    • • The Reformers' insistence on total reliance on Scripture
  44. 5. List factors in the "resurrection" of scholasticism.
    • o    The need for Formal clerical training (mere adherence to the core doctrines of the reformation
    • o    Confidence in Reason
    • (reason became a means to develop coherent theology out of the great variety of biblical text)
    • -seen in Reformed theology, for example: synthesizing theology of soteriology through inferences
    • o   Religious Controversy
    • ·   Countering Catholicism (e.g., the Council of Trent)
    • ·   Countering Heterodoxy within Protestantism (e.g.,
    • Arminianism, which was attacked by the Synod of Dort in 1618-19)
    • --Dort manifests some heavily Reformed scholastic tendencies in its approach tosquelching Arminianism
    • ·  Countering Heresy within Protestantism
    •         Confessional statements get longer and longer
  45. 6. List characteristics of Prot scholasticism.
    • 1. Heightened theological rigidity (very little flex in Lutheranism and Reformed faith)
    • 2 Use of reason applied to Scripture (not entirely bad, but must be subordinated to revelation)
    • 3 Increased systematization of theology
    • 4 Melanchthon introduced; Calvin developed after M's model (birth of the era)
    • Developed beyond the Reformers
  46. 7. List criticisms of Prot scholasticism.
    • • Tended to equate faith with mental assent (ironically one of the key Catholic errors the Reformers addressed)
    • • Resulted in battles over non-essentials (e.g., are the vowel points of the Heb biblical text inspired?)
    • Polemicized truth (i.e., truth became a tool of argumentation)
    • • Converted the Bible to proof-texts
    • • Manifested an experiential barrenness (most lit. from this era is not inspiring, motivating, or spiritually uplifting)
  47. List historical consequences of Prot scholasticism.
    • • Created a systematic, well-defined, and aggressive Prot theology
    • • Encouraged accommodation to early modern philosophy -Used Aristotle until he become passe (in the 18th and 19th cent.)
    • • Contributed to seeing an increased desire for the diminution of doctrine for the sake of unity
    • • Led to reaction within Prot by those who emphasized the emotional nature of Christian piety
    •    --they were trying to recover the heart of Christianity
    •    --There were elements of Lutheran, Reformed, and Anglican scholasticism
  48. Relate two questions regarding the pursuit of Christian unity and how those questions were addressed respectively by George Calixtus, Abraham Calovius, Hugo Grotius, and Jan Amos Comenius.
    ·  Were Catholics to be regarded as true Christians by the scholastic Protestants?
    · How much cooperation should exist among Protestants?
    • A.   George Calixtus (1586-1686)--Lutheran who wanted unity around the Apostles' Creed and the first 4 creeds of the church; criticized for belief that Reformed believers would be in heaven
    • B.    Abraham Calovius (1612-1686)--represents pinnacle of Lutheran scholasticism; prof of theology at Wittenberg; rejected unity with Catholics without doctrinal conformity
    • C.  Hugo Grotius (1583-1645)--sought unity along legal/moral grounds
    • D.   Jan Amos Comenius (1592-1670)-"father of modern education;" used education as a missions tool to create common understanding
  49. 1. Explain why Prot Pietism is sometimes called the "second
    • (in desire to recover devotional ground lost in scholasticism)
    • Pietists could be found in nearly every religious group, including Roman Catholicism
  50. 2. Identify Quietism and Jansenism as forms of Catholic Pietism.
    • ·  Quietism--a mystical  element (e.g., Theresa of Avila, John of the Cross); attempted to recover connectedness with God
    •   Miguel de Molinas (17th c.), an Italian priest who advocated a Keswick-type of Christianity
    • · Jansenism (Cornelius Otto Jansen, 1585-1638)
    •    -develops the ideas of Vaius, who attempted to recover Augustinian views on justification while being submissive to the pope
  51. 3. Identify Swedenborgianism and Quakerism as aberrant forms of Pietism.
    • · Swedenborgianism (named after Emmanuel Swedenborg) denied the Trinity, blood atonement, etc.; had as its goal an emotional relationship with God
    • · Quakerism (began 1640s)
    •    --Baptists were lumped with these initially
    •    George Foxe-- founder 1648-1690

    Pietism--Gk eusebia (godliness); Latin, piety. Was a negative label that Lutheran protestantism embraced first
  52. 4. Recognize Dutch Pietism as the root of the Pietistic movement.
    • Both Dutch and German Pietists traced their roots to English Puritanism (by reading their literature, etc.)
    • • Dutch Pietism--perhaps the birthplace for what moved into Germany
  53. Describe the importance of Johann Arndt, Jacob
    Spener, August Francke, and Nicholas von Zinzendorf to German Pietism.
    • 1. Arndt, 1555-1621. A Proto-Pietist.True
    • Christianity, more influential after his death. Introduction by Spener in 1674: ends German Scholasticism and begins Pietism.
    • 2.  Spener. Pia Desideria (Pious Longings): call to reform church. Read Baxter and Goodwin. Had stayed in Geneva; had a Waldensian friend. Influenced by Jean de Labadie. Saw Luther as a fallible man. Ministry in Frankfurt at age 31. Broke pattern of appointed readings and preached his own selected texts, including books of the Bible. Re-introduced confirmation to sift the genuineness of conversion.

    Preached message early at Frankfurt on Matt 5.25-26 toward practical righteousness; revival occurred. Small groups [collegia pietetas].

    Made 6 Recommendations for Reform

    •  3.  Francke (1663-1727). "Muller in a previous century."
    • Both connected with U. of Halle. Great organizer; sterner than Spener; converted under his own preaching on Jn 20.31. Met Spener in 1688; transformed U of Halle in 1690s.
    • ·  Builds orphanages and a hospital; promoted missions

    • 4. Zinzendorf (1700-1760)
    • · Godson of Spener; Brilliant student at Halle; Ordained into Lutheranism; Founded church from exiles from Moravia. Had difficulties of a theological nature

    Moravian Missions: between 1732-760, 226 Moravians entered ten foreign countries. Within 20 years their missionary work had started more missions than the Anglicans and Protestants had started during the two preceding centuries. Seal: "OUR LAMB HAS CONQUERED; LET US FOLLOW HIM."
  54. 6. Identify what event in 1674 marked the beginning of German Pietism.
    Spener’s discovery and distribution of Arndt’s True Christianity. Work attempts to recover a vital relational Christianity. Emphasized holiness of life. Introduction written by Spener in 1674, which may be recognized as the end of German Scholasticism and the beginning of Pietism.
  55. Enumerate Spener's recommendations for reform. (6 things)
    • 1. The Word of God must be made better known
    • 2. The restoration and active use of the spiritual priesthood.
    • 3. Christianity consists not in knowing but in action
    • 4. Controversies should be avoided or entered upon only prayerfully and dispassionately; those in error are to be met with heartfelt love.
    • 5. A revolution in the training of ministers is demanded.
    • 6.  Preaching should be truly edifying. (should be free from distracting elements)
  56. Explain the importance of the University of Halle to the German Pietist movement.
    • Francke (1663-1727): his leadership transformed the Univ of Halle in the 1690s. 
    • Nicholas von Zinzendorf (1700-1760) Brilliant student at Halle
    • George Muller studied there later
  57. Describe the contributions of Pietism to the
    development of Prot missions, including the role of the Moravians.
    • Francke (1663-1727) Builds orphanages and a hospital; became a zealous promoter of foreign missions nearly
    • 100 yrs before Carey.
    • 1705 -Zieganbalg and Plutschau planted missions enterprise in Tranquebar, India

    • Nicholas von Zinzendorf (1700-1760)
    • Moravian Missions: between 1732-60, 226 Moravians entered ten foreign countries. Within 20 years their missionary work had started more missions than the Anglicans and Protestants had started during the two preceding centuries. Seal: "OUR LAMB HAS CONQUERED; LET US FOLLOW HIM."
  58. List emphases of Pietism.
    • Bible reading over systematic theology
    • Faith as including trust, more than mental assent
    • • Christian fellowship, especially in small groups
    • • Emphasized separation from evil
    • • Emphasized true Christian piety (a genuine relation to God in daily life)
  59. Enumerate and describe factors in the religious decline of Europe. (4 things)
    • A. Deism--at arose against Rationalism to show that Christianity was not contrary to reason, but reasonable.
    • B. Philosophy--Hume (agnostic); Joseph Butler, William Paley (rational approach to revelation) contribute toward the era of "Enlightenment". Divorced faith from revelation.
    • C. Theologies
    •    e.g.,Rey Mauritz (German) pressed for historical Jesus     (emph. Form criticism)
    •      Unitarianism
    •      Socinianism, e.g., Priestley (Unitarian)
    •      Hyper-Calvinism
    • D. French Revolution
  60. List tenets of deism. (5 things)
    • God exists
    • • It is our duty to worship him
    • • The proper way to do so is to practice virtue
    • Men ought to repent of their sins (as one of the virtues)
    • Rewards and punishments will follow death
  61. dentify rationalism, Unitarianism, and
    hyper-Calvinism as expressions of aberrant theologies.
    • e.g.,Rey Mauritz (German) pressed for historical Jesus (emph. form criticism)
    • 1. People opted for monotheism that was
    • not Christian, that did not offend the rationalistic priority
    • 2. Unitarianism
    • 3. Socinianism e.g., Priestley (Unitarian)
    • 4. Hyper-Calvinism: believes that it is blameworthy to offer the gospel to someone who is non-elect; places rationalism above the scripture. Within realm of orthodoxy but should be seriously challenged
  62. Explain the French Revolution as the culmination
    of the rejection of the Reformation.
    --Fr gov't was highly centralized; Systematically shut down Ref through the 1600s. With revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) Fr declared itself a Catholic nation and expelled the Prot minority (Huguenot). Took Napoleon to restore a degree of balance. Elevating themselves over God, they destroyed themselves and did not recover until much later.
  63. List and explain major characteristics of American church history. (7 things)
    • Dominantly Protestant
    • Primarily English in origin
    • Evangelical
    • Denominational Variety
    • Tolerant
    • Adaptible
    • Revival
  64. 2. List qualities of English Puritanism that heavily influenced American history.
    • 1. Dependence on God alone for the work of conversion--Am Puritans probably exceeded Eng Puritans on this; requiring conversion for church membership
    • 2. Emphasized the authority of the Bible
    • 3. Believed that God created society as a unified whole (church, home, gov't all needed to be connected under God, and cannot be too compartmentalized)
    • 4. Adherence to covenants, believing they were God's primary means of dealing with His people.Salvation (e.g., Congregationalists, who struggled with whether a man who had not made a public profession of faith could hold a church office)
  65. 3. List differences between English Puritanism and American Puritanism.
    • Am:  Able to implement their vision for church and
    • society

    • Church polity
    • o Most English Puritans favored a State-supported
    • Presbyterianism; on Am Puritanism, Congregationalism dominated church polity
    • o Some Puritans held to a polity that incorporated a church congregationalism independent of and separate from the State

    • · Not as creedal or confessional as Europe; for them the creed is the Gospel
    • A. Emphasized Individual Conversions
    • B. Evangelistic Concerns
  66. 2. Explain the Half-Way Covenant and Stoddardism.
    • [due to covenantalism increasing numbers of church members were unconverted]
    • (1662) Halfway Covenant--allowed baptism of the children of unconverted church members as a means of salvation (not finally, but initially)
    • Opening of Communion to the unconverted (Solomon Stoddard) "Stoddardism"
    • --Stoddard was himself converted as a minister while
    • administering the ordinance of Communion
  67. 3. List factors that led to America's denominational variety.
    geography, heritage, politics, & different interpretations of secondary theological questions [e.g., baptism]
  68. Identify the religious character of the different groups of North American colonies.
    • • New England--Puritan Congregational (Plymouth, Mass Bay, Newhaven, etc)
    • • Middle Colonies--diverse (e.g., NJ (Dutch, then English); NY (Dutch, then English); PA (free); DE (Swedish, Dutch, then English)
    • • Maryland--Catholic (1634) only RC colony
    • • Southern Colonies--Anglican (VA, NC, SC, GA)
    • • Rhode Island--religiously tolerant  Ex. Of religious toleration:Early town charter--submission "only in civil
    • things" (1636). Became national policy over time.
  69. 5. Explain the importance of Rhode Island's policy of religious toleration.
    • Early town charter—required submission "only in civil things" (1636). Became national policy over time.
    • • Reflected the growing diversity of Europe
    • • Provided a setting for the Radical "Free Church" reformation to flourish
    • • Consisted of Defined Agendas/Visions
    • • Manifested diversity and Individuality

    • Gradually the "National" Policy of Religious toleration Became the "Local" Policy. Tension Escalated: The European model of organized religion Vs.The concept of a society permitting religious variety without civil interference
    • Colonies experienced growing pains until true religious freedom became law (1789)
  70. 6. Contrast the dominant denominations in North America in 1750 and 1900.
    • 1750: Congregationalists, Episcopalian, Presbyterian
    • 1900: Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Methodist, Baptist
  71. 1. List and describe the major revivals in American history.
    • · First Great Awakening (1725-50)
    • · Camp Meeting Revivals (1790-1810s) (overlap with the 2nd G.A.)
    • · New England Revivals--2nd G.A. (1775-1842)
    • · Charles Finney Revival (1830s-1860s)
    • · Prayer Meeting Revivals (1857-58)
    • · Moody Revivals (1870-99)
  72. Explain why the Half-Way Covenant and the history of Harvard College reflect religious decline in New England
    Mass Bay colony by the 1650s saw their 2nd and 3rd generations not living up to their confessions; thus the Halfway Covenant is adopted to enable their children to be baptized into the church and be halfway members. Thus nominal belief is institutionalized.

    Harvard (est 1636), founded to train clergy in colonial America, saw rapid decline that precipitated founding of Yale in 1701 as an orthodox alternative to the compromised school.
  73. 3. Describe the place of Solomon Stoddard in Christianity in New England.
    • Stoddard (1643-1729), was the most recognized voice of NE Protestantism; had extensive influence
    • Assistant who came to help him in 1727 was Jonathan Edwards (JE was SS's grandson)
    • Entered ministry likely unconverted; came to faith through administration of Communion
    • Uses Halfway Covenant on children of unbelieving members; then advocates practice with Communion to make it an evangelizing tool. Increases numbers of people into use of the privileges of the church without conversion being necessary.
    • Stoddard's sermons were very Puritan in manner and pointed, e.g., "The False Hopes of Many Professing Believers."
  74. dentify Jonathan Edwards, Gilbert Tennent, and
    George Whitefield as leaders of the First Great Awakening.
    • Edwards: g’son of Stoddard; assisted him in the N’hampton church; himself will be dismissed from his church after opposing the practice of Stoddardism. A careful scholar but great example of meticulous ministry.
    • • Gilbert Tennent--Log College (early Princeton) enters this era and preaches not only to people but to ministers, viz., "The Dangers of an Unconverted Ministry."
    • Whitefield would make 7 trips to America and will echo Tennent's message.
  75. Identify national crises that intervened between
    periods of revival in American history.
    • First Great Awakening (1725-50)
    • War of Independence (1770s-1790s)
    • Camp Meeting Revivals (1790-1810s) (overlap with the 2nd G.A.)
    • War of 1812 (1812-15)
    • New England Revivals--2nd G.A. (1775-1842)
    • • Charles Finney Revival (1830s-1860s)
    • Panic of 1857
    • Prayer Meeting Revivals (1857-58)
    • Civil War (1860s)
    • Moody Revivals (1870-99)
    • Spanish-American War (1898)
    • City-wide revivals (Torrey, Chapman, Biederwolf)
    • WWI (1914-1918)
    • Billy Sunday
    • Great Depression and WWII
    • • Billy Graham
  76. Identify Cane Ridge and Barton Stone and their role in the camp meeting revivals.
    • • Contemporaneous with Second GA, but not connected
    • • On the near frontier-western border of eastern colonies
    • • Barton Stone (Cane Ridge Camp meeting) 1800; Stone was a defrocked Pres. Minister (due to his methods)

    • Excesses: bodily agitations such as falling exercise; with a scream fall as dead. Jerks: sometimes one member of the body (such as the head) or whole body; jerking backward and forward. Dancing and barking exercise; loud laughter, which incited solemnity in saints and sinners; running exercise; singing that emanated entirely from the breast (not with the voice).
    • • Camp meetings still held in places in the South.
  77. Describe circuit-riding and identify Peter Cartwright.
    Sacramental gatherings--circuit-riding preachers (ordinances, marital unions, etc)

    Peter Cartwright--saw great blessing as a circuit rider at Camp meetings
  78. 6. Identify Timothy Dwight and describe his ministry at Yale College.
    • Revival of Ivy League Schools within student bodies (1820s-30s) Revival of Seriousness among collegiate youth
    • Instigator of College revivals: Timothy Dwight (g'son of Jonathan Edwards, who becomes Pres of Yale. Preaches a 4-year cycle of messages.
    • In the 7th year (1801), God opens hearts of the students. Becomes a place where everyone is talking about religion all the time, acc to students writing home.
    • 1790-1914 Modern missions movement--reaped a great deal in the 1820s and 30s
  79. Explain "democratization" in American religion in connection with American revivals beginning with the Second Great
    • The 2nd G.A. contributed to the transformation of Calvinist theology--"democratizing" the doctrine of salvation (men will have more of a role to play in salvation)
    • 1739-40, conflict between Wesley and Whitefield. When Whitefield went to America, Wesley published "Free Grace", throwing down the gauntlet against a Calvinist gospel. Increasingly Arminian doctrinal statements ensued, especially among Baptists (e.g., New Hampshire confession). Today there is a revival of Puritan literature and Calvinistic theology. Historic Calvinism: God elected some to be saved on the basis of His own foreknowledge. Solidified evangelical Protestantism as the nation's overwhelmingly predominant religion Contributed to splintering within evangelicalism.
  80. List characteristics of the Charles Finney revivals.
    • --(RV) Finney held that revivals were the responsibility of men to produce
    • New measures coupled with prayer
    • Emph on organization
    • Publicity
    • Anxious or inquirer's meeting
    • Anxious Bench "eager pew" in front on which people chose to sit
    • Meetings individually protracted in length (wouldn't let go until decision made oftentimes)
    • Named public sinners in protracted public prayers Coarse, colloquial, and perceived irreverent language Community-wide campaigns
    • Women praying in mixed gatherings
    • Altar call
  81. Distinguish Charles Finney's view of revival from that of earlier American revival leaders.
    • Stemmed in part from a reaction to staid Deistic thinking Finney's approach was emotional and demonstrative Charles Finney was a Presbyterian, anti-Calvinist lawyer. 
    • Calculated emotional flavor; emphasis on external workings and methodology
    • "Ten Easy Steps to Revival:" "God has overthrown, generally, the theory that revivals are miracles."
    • --thus (RV) Finney held that revivals were the responsibility of men to produce
  82. List Finney's "new measures" for revival.
    • New measures coupled with prayer
    • Emph on organization
    • Publicity
    • Anxious or inquirer's meeting
    • Anxious Bench "eager pew" in front on which people chose to sit
    • Meetings individually protracted in length (wouldn't let go until decision made oftentimes)
    • Named public sinners in protracted public prayers Coarse, colloquial, and perceived irreverent language Community-wide campaigns
    • Women praying in mixed gatherings
    • Altar call
  83. Contrast the evangelistic methodologies of Charles Finney and Asahel Nettleton.
    Summary of Finney in The life and labours of Asahel Nettleton by Bennet Tyler and Andrew Bonar:

    Page 449: F's doctrine deviated from the truth…then authors list a dozen deviations from Biblical doctrine

    • Pelagian or semi-Pelagian doctrine. 
    • Moral desolation succeeded these excitements...
    • Most ministers unwelcome now in places where they were said to be so successful, including Finney himself. 

    • RV: short-term results, as opposed to Asahel
    • Nettleton's long-lasting results
  84. 4. Describe the nature of the prayer meeting revivals.
    • Trans-national (America, England, Ireland), though not necessarily inter-connected Not evangelist-centered; lay-centered; not generated through personalities, and not primarily through preaching
    • Jeremiah Lanphier (Christian worker at Dutch Reformed church on Fulton St in NYC).
    • Large cities used the prayer meeting model, nationally Brief formula: 15 min opening; 5 min time for closing hymn; a clergyman invited to close in prayer
    • Fruitful with lasting results
    • Historically brief
    • Clear indication of divine visitation
  85. Describe the character of D. L. Moody and the urban revivals that took place under his ministry.
    • D.L. Moody (1836-1899) and Moody Revivals (1870-99) America more industrialized and massed in cities
    • Began ministering in YMCAs, army camps during the Civil War, etc
    • Preached with great success in America and England Typically held campaigns of 1-6 months
    • Moody's message--love of God for sinners; used by God to heal a nation whose fabric had been rent
    • Contributed to ecumenism
  86. 6. List and describe the major successors to D. L. Moody in citywide evangelism.
    • R.A. Torrey (1856-1928)
    • J. Wilbur Chapman (1859-1918)
    • William E. Biederwolf (1867-1939)
    • William Ashley "Billy" Sunday (1862-1935)
    • Billy Graham (1918- )
  87. Describe the career of Billy Graham and his impact on evangelical Christianity.
    • Billy Graham (1918- )
    • Attended BJC (Fall, 1936); switched after one semester to Florida Bible Institute, where he was called to preach. BG said FBI allowed "multiple views to be discussed" which impressed him
    • Though born a Presby, he was baptized by immersion in 1938
    • Ordained as an SBC preacher in 1939; grad 1940; went on to Wheaton College
    • Married Ruth Bell, whose parents had been missionaries to China (1943)
    • Pastored Baptist church in final yr at Wheaton and ff Began preaching for Youth for Christ (1944)
    • Became pres of Northwestern Schools (Dec 1947-Feb 1952)
    • First citywide crusade in Mich 1947
    • Crusade in Augusta GA in 1948 marked beginning of openly ecumenical program
    • LA crusade (1949) receives national press.
    • Ockenga invitd him to Boston in Jan 1950 (sold out Boston Garden)
    • Began Hour of Decision in 1950
    • Read Evangelicalism Divided by Iain Murray, and the biography of David Martyn Lloyd-Jones "eye-opening" re: Graham
    • Interim in London (March - May, 1954) test run for Graham's compromise evangelism
    • Christianity Today launched 1956, sponsored by J. Howard Pew
    • Break with Fundamentalism in 1957 due to NYC crusade; BG accepted sponsorship from liberal Prot Ch Council in NYC
  88. List common characteristics of American evangelicalism:
    • a. failure to disciple the converted and edify
    • the laity
    • b. tendency toward iimpatience in the ministry
    •  c. overextension of debt for buildings
    •  d. insularity and isolation of Christian young people from childhood to adulthood
    • e. minimization of the sovereignty of God in salvation and sanctification
    • f. tendency to equate numbers and visible activity with success
    • g.a seeming decline in the number of young people responding to the call of God
Card Set:
CH 602 Test 2
2012-06-27 04:21:37
Church History Reformation Present

Lessons 18-32; Zwingli and Calvin to Billy Graham
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