2. Identify the four phases of the Thirty Years' War.
- A. Bohemian phase (1618-1623). Bohemia was Prot, and part of the HRE; but dominated by the
- Catholic Habsburg family. Ferdinand as King of Bohemia (and will become emperor) tries to suppress the Prots by revoking privileges formerly enjoyed by these non-Catholics.
- Defenestration of Prague--two Catholic officers approach Bohemian Diet with Ferdinand's terms; the Diet threw
- them out of a window and they landed into a compost heap. The men were fairly unharmed, but the Diet deposed Ferdinand and instead selected Frederick V, a
- Reformed member of the Wittlesbach family. Fred V was a member of the Palatinate, thus an elector of the emperor. This also tips the balance of electors to the Protestants (4 to 3) which upsets the Catholics. Fred V accepts as a divine calling, and attempts to quickly impose reforms upon the Bohemians who invited him. The Lutheran populace did not receive these well, however! The Bohemian division leaves them unprepared to defend themselves against the Catholics, who will invade to avenge the embarrassment given to King Ferdinand.
This war will progress from being national (primitive Germany) to increasingly international.
B. Danish phase (1625-29)
. Danes came to the aid of Germany. Catholic troops invaded Heidelberg; punitively took its exceptional library. Some Luth princes would not support the Reformed king in some battles, which hurt the Prot cause. Seeing the Habsburg troops encroaching northward toward them, the Danes attempt to retard their advance while still on German soil. Not being successful, they sign an Edict of Restitution, which was an enforcement of the ecclesiastical reservation of the Peace of Augsburg. It is heavy-handed by Ferdinand.
C. Swedish Phase (1630-32)
. Gustavus Adolphus, a Protestant king (the "Snow King"). Renowned for his personal virtue and success in battle, but ultimately defeated and Protestantism suffered setbacks due to that.
- D. French Phase (Cardinal Richelieu) (1635- ??). A Cardinal who sides with Prots due to not wishing to see
- Catholic troops invade France. This confirms that the war had degenerated from initial religious reasons to national and personal agendas.