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Bond breaking vs. bond making
Breaking = NEEDS energy, endothermic
Making = RELEASES energy because atoms involved must lower their energy level in order to bond with one another and thus, this excess energy is released , exothermic
Actual yield/Theoretical yield x 100%
Crystalline vs. Amorphous solids
Amorphous solids have no definite structure or shape
Intermolecular vs. Intramolecular bonds
Intramolecular - between atoms in molecule: covalent and ionic
Intermolecular- between different molecules: Van der Waals, H-bonds, Dipole-dipole
Electron orbits nucleus at high speed to avoid crashing - attracted to nucleus b/c of electrostatic attraction
Shell level (n) tells of the energy of an orbiting electron. The higher the shell number, the more energetic the electron AND the larger the radius from the nucleus
Zeff - Effective nuclear charge
Zeff = nuclear charge - shielding electrons
Shielding electrons are those that are in subshells (s,p,d,f) closer to the nucleus (lower in energy) than the electron we are interested in
Shielding e's orbits at a smaller radius
The higher the effective nuclear charge for an electron, the more stable it is (higher ionization energy, not easily knocked off)
Electrons added to the same subshell will occupy empty orbitals first. Electrons that occupy orbitals with another electron will have opposite spin.
Electrons will first fill the lowest possible energy level before filling a higher one. 1s before 2s.
Transition levels in electron configuration
As the n energy level increases, the transition level between n's decrease. The largest transition energy is between n1 & n2
% element -- convert to grams out of 100g compound. / mw
Then divide all by lowest # of moles to give molar ratio of each compound.
Having at least 1 unpaired electron