Atomic Details

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  1. Bond breaking vs. bond making 
    Breaking = NEEDS energy, endothermic 

    Making = RELEASES energy because atoms involved must lower their energy level in order to bond with one another and thus, this excess energy is released , exothermic 
  2. Percent yield 
    Actual yield/Theoretical yield x 100%
  3. Crystalline vs. Amorphous solids 
    Amorphous solids have no definite structure or shape 
  4. Intermolecular vs. Intramolecular bonds
    Intramolecular - between atoms in molecule: covalent and ionic

    Intermolecular- between different molecules: Van der Waals, H-bonds, Dipole-dipole
  5. Bohr atom 
    Electron orbits nucleus at high speed to avoid crashing - attracted to nucleus b/c of electrostatic attraction 

    Shell level (n) tells of the energy of an orbiting electron. The higher the shell number, the more energetic the electron AND the larger the radius from the nucleus  
  6. Zeff - Effective nuclear charge
    Zeff = nuclear charge - shielding electrons

    Shielding electrons are those that are in subshells (s,p,d,f) closer to the nucleus (lower in energy) than the electron we are interested in

    Shielding e's orbits at a smaller radius

    The higher the effective nuclear charge for an electron, the more stable it is (higher ionization energy, not easily knocked off)
  7. Hund's Rule
    Electrons added to the same subshell will occupy empty orbitals first. Electrons that occupy orbitals with another electron will have opposite spin. 
  8. Afbau principle 
    Electrons will first fill the lowest possible energy level before filling a higher one. 1s before 2s. 
  9. Transition levels in electron configuration 
    As the n energy level increases, the transition level between n's decrease. The largest transition energy is between n1 & n2
  10. Empirical formula 
    % element -- convert to grams out of 100g compound. / mw

    Then divide all by lowest # of moles to give molar ratio of each compound. 
  11. Paramagnetic 
    Having at least 1 unpaired electron

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Atomic Details
2013-04-21 22:15:36

MCAT General Chemistry
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