Systems 3 Final 1.txt

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  1. ´╗┐What does the lymbic system control?
    • A. emotion
    • 1. physiological: ANS & hormonal
    • 2. Behaviors: fight/flight
    • 3. Psychological state: cortical mediated
    • Bidirectional bridges of sensory(neocortex) & visceral/somatic motor (hypothalamus, ANS)
  2. Which parts of the CNS control visceral/somatic aspects of emotional behavior?
    hypothalamus & brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla)
  3. What is sham rage?
    • In a cat
    • autonomic: increase in BP, HR, pupildilation, piloerection
    • somatic: arching back, extensding claws, snarling
    • mediated by hypothalamus & brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla
  4. What are the structures of the limbic system?
    • cortical: cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampal formation, orbital & prefrontal cortex (extended)
    • Subcortical: amygdala, septal region, ventral basal ganglia including nucleus accumbens, basal forebrain(extended)
    • Diencephalic & Brainstem: thalamic nuclei, hypothalamus (mamillary bodies), reticular formation(extended)
  5. What sensory input directly goes into the limbic system?
    • olfactory into amygdala
    • emotions from smell
  6. Where is the amygldala located?
    anterior, medial aspect of temporal lobe
  7. What are some important connections of the amygdala?
    • olfactory striae
    • thalamus & hypothalamus (ventral amygdalofugal)
    • stria terminals (septal)
    • cortex
  8. What does the stria terminalis connect?
    amygldala & septal areas
  9. What does the fornix connect?
    reciprocal projections between hippocampus & mammilalary nuclei (& septal area)
  10. What does the amygdala do?
    • fear
    • assign emotional significance to sensory experience
  11. Where is the hippocampus?
    medial temporal, posterior to amygdala
  12. What are the features of the hippocampus?
    • dentate gyrus (new memories)
    • hippocampus proper: Corni ammonis(CA1, CA3)
    • subiculum
    • CA1
  13. What is the papez circuit?
    • 1. Hippocampus
    • 2. Fornix
    • 3. Mamillary body
    • 4. Anterior nucleus of dorsal thalamus
    • 5. Cingulate Gyrus
  14. What does the hippocampus do?
    formation of new declarative memory (episodic & semantic) NOT nondeclarative (procedural)
  15. What is special about the dentate gyrus?
    • Neurogenesis of hypoxic sucsceptible hippocamus
    • could lead to improper circuit loops-> epilepsy
  16. What is epilepsy?
    spontaneous seizures (excessive synchronous neuronal activity of brain)
  17. What is MTLE?
    • Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
    • often w/ hippocampal sclerosis
    • recurring seizures -> depression
    • most resistant to therapy (unless surgical removal)
  18. What is seizure first aid?
    • prevent injury
    • supine
    • do not restrain or put anything in mouth
    • note duration
    • call 911 (> 5 mins or other complications)
  19. What are mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs?
    • (prevent hyperexcitability)
    • determined by type of seizures (partial, gereralized)
    • Voltage gated Na+ channel (phenytoin: SE gingival hyperplasia)
    • Ca2+ channel
    • GABA, AMPA NMDA receptors
    • Glutamergic blockers
  20. What are dental implicatioins of antiepileptic drugs?
    • sedatives: CNS depressiion
    • gingival hyperplasia: phenytoin, eithosuximide
    • hepatic microsomal enzyme induction
    • orofacial pain treatment: gabapentin
    • migrane treatment
  21. What are non drug treatments of epiliepsy?
    • surgery: removal of epileptogenic region
    • elecctrical stimulation: vagal, trigeminal nervestimulation
    • ketogenic diet
  22. What are common side effects of anti-seizure meds?
    • increased infection
    • xerostomia
    • gingival hyperplasia (phenytoin)
  23. what is the main function of the basal ganglia?
    gating proper initiation of movement
  24. What are the components of the basal ganglia?
    • caudate nucleus & putamen: striatum
    • globus pallidus: external & internal
    • substantia nigra: parscompacta & pars reticulata
    • subthalamic nucleus
  25. What 2 systems modulate motor system?
    • basal ganglia: gating proper initiation of movement
    • cerebellum: sensory motor coordination
  26. What regions project (input) to basal ganglia?
    • cortex
    • frontal(medial)->caudate
    • temporal, parietal, frontal (lateral)-> putamen
    • primary visual cortex
    • primary auditory cortex
    • PARS COMPACTA (nigrostriatal pathway)
  27. What is the importance of the nigrostraiatal pathway?
    dopamine modulatory neurotransmitter: pars compacta of substantia nigra to striatum
  28. What are the 3 parts of the hypothalamus?
    • anterior: reproduction & thermoregulation
    • Tuberal: hypophysiotrophic zone (anterior pituitary)
    • posterior/lateral: state & arousal mechanisms
  29. What are the humeral(blood) inputs to the hypothalamus?
    • thermo/osmo, hormone receptors
    • circumventricular organs: along ventricles w/o blood-brain barrier
  30. What are control mechanisms of hypothalamus?
    • 1. neural signals: ANS (lateral) parasym vagal nuclei & IML
    • 2. endocrine: pituitary
    • a. magnocellular: posterior pituitary-release neurohormomes into bloodstream
    • b. parvicellular: median eminaence: secrete releasing factors into capillary system of anterior pituitary
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Systems 3 Final 1.txt
Systems 3 Final
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