CIS101

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jenmuz
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158934
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CIS101
Updated:
2012-06-16 21:17:03
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MSUCIS MSU CIS Computers Learning
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Computers for Learning
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  1. What is a computer?
    A computer is a programable machine that converts raw data into useful information
  2. Ergonomics
    An applied science concerned with designing and arranging things people use so that the people and the things interact most efficiently and safely
  3. Information Processing Cycle
    • I: It gathers data or allows users to input data
    • P: It processes that data into information
    • O: It outputs data and information
    • S: It stores data and information
  4. Moore's Law
    • Predicts that the number of transitors inside a CPU will increase so fast that CPU capacity will double every 18 months
    • Named after Gordon Moore, cofounder of CPU chip manufacturer Intel 
  5. Hardware
    Any part of the computer a person can physically touch. Examples: the system unit and peripheral devices such as keyboards, mice, monitors, printers and speakers
  6. ALU
    • Arithmetic logic unit, it's responsible for performing all the arithmetic calculations, logic, and comparison decisions, such as comparing items to determine if one is greater than, less than, equal to or not equal to another.
    • It's one of two units that the CPU is composed of (the other is the control unit) 
  7. What language does a computer understand?
    • Binary language
    • It consists of two digits, 1 and 0 
  8. What is a zero or one called in computer speak?
    A binary digit, or bit.
  9. How many bits create 1 byte?
    Eight
  10. Kilobyte
    • KB
    • 1000 bytes 
  11. Megabyte
    • MB
    • 1 million bytes 
  12. Gigabyte
    • GB
    • 1 billion bytes 
  13. Terabyte
    • TB
    • 1 trillion bytes 
  14. Petabyte
    • PB
    • 1 quadrillion bytes 
  15. Excabyte
    • EB
    • 1 quintillion bytes 
  16. Zettabyte
    • ZB
    • 1 sextillion bytes 
  17. Yottabyte
    • YB
    • 1 septillion bytes 
  18. Types of storage devices
    • Compact disc (CD), 700 MB, optical laser
    • Digital Versitile Disc (DVD), stores 6 times as much as a CD, optical laser
    • Blu-Ray, optical laster, five times capacity of DVD
    • USB/Flash/Jump drives, nonmechanical (not optical but stored on a memory chip)
    • Hard drives  
  19. Hard drives
    The main huge storage devices inside the system unit. Holds the operating system, computer programs and data files that people create.
  20. Clock speed
    • The speed at which the processor executes the four steps of the instruction cycle
    • Measured in gigahertz (GHz), which means billions of cycles per second 
  21. Computer network
    Simply two or more computers (sometimes called nodes) that are connected together by way of software and hardware so they can communicate with each other
  22. Local Area Network
    • LAN
    • A network where the computers are located within a small geographic area 
  23. Wide Area Network
    • WAN
    • A network connected over long distances, such as the internet 
  24. Network adapters
    Allow the computers on the network to communicate with each other and to access the network
  25. Control unit
    Coordinates the activities of all the other computer parts or components
  26. CPU
    • Central Processing Unit
    • The largest and most important chip in the processor
    • The "brains"
    • Controls all functions performed by other components and processes all commands
    • Located on the motherboard    
  27. Data bus
    Part of the motherboard, data buses are wires that connect the internal devices on the motherboard
  28. Data v. Information
    • Raw data is entered into the system during the input stage
    • When the data is processed or manipulated, it becomes useful information
    •   
  29. A device that works by scanning a document and converting it into a digital format that can be transmitted over telphone lines to a receiving device, which outputs the document
    Fax
  30. GHz
    • Gigahertz
    • Billions of cycles per second - a 3 GHz processor has 3 billion data cycles per second
    • Clock speed is measured in GHz  
  31. Input devices
    • enable a person to enter data and instructions into the computer to be processed into valuable information
    • Two most common input devices are the keyboard and the mouse 
  32. Output devices
    • Enable a person to send processed data out of the computer
    • Monitors and printers are output devices, also projectors, video and sound cards, speakers and headphones 
  33. Other input devices
    stylus (used on PDAs), touch pads, digital cameras, scanners, microphones and game controllers
  34. The standard computer keyboard is
    The QWERTY keyboard
  35. What type of keyboard allows a user to type most of the commonly used words in the English language with the letters found on home row?
    Dvorak (A,O,E,U,I,D,H,T,N and S are on the home row)
  36. Instruction Cycle
    Every time the CPU executes program instructions, performs calculations, or makes decisions it goes through the four steps of the instruction cycle
  37. What are the four steps of the instruction cycle?
    • F: the CPU fetches the required piece of data or instructions from RAM
    • D: the CPU decodes the instruction into something the computer can understand
    • E: The CPU executes the instructions and 
    • S: Stores the result to RAM before fethching the next instruction and starting the four steps all over againg   
  38. Motherboard
    • The main circuitboard inside the system unit
    • Contains the set of chips that powers the system unit
    • Provides the way for devices to attach to a computer
    • Houses the chips that provide the short term memory for the computer as well as a set of slots for expansion cards
    • Has data buses that connect internal devices that are on the motherboard    
  39. Peripheral devices
    • Keyboards, mice, monitors, printers and speakers
    • Connected to expansion cards on the motherboard, which is inside the system unit
    •   
  40. Ports
    • Connect peripheral devices to the motherboard
    • Most common ports today are USB and FireWire 
    • USB - printers, mice keyboards, digital cameras and cell phones
    • FireWire - primarily high-end digital cameras   
  41. Pixels
    • Monitor screens are grids made up of millions of pixels.
    • Illuminated pixels create the images seen on the monitor 
  42. LCD monitors
    • Made up of two layers or sheets of material filled with a liquid crystal solution.
    • An electric current passes through the solution, the crystals move around (either blocking the fluorescent light or letting the light shine through) to form images on the screen 
  43. What are the most common printers today?
    • Inkjet printers and laser printers
    • (laser are the fastest and quietest)
  44. Purpose of output devices?
    allows a person to send processed data (text, pictures, sound and video) out of the computer
  45. RAM
    • Random Access Memory
    • Storage space that keeps data and commands nearby so they can be fed to the CPU quickly
    • RAM is temporary or volatile (all RAM is erased when the computer is turned off)  
  46. ROM
    • Read Only Memory
    • Holds all the instructions the computer needs to start up
    • Stored instructions are permanent, non-volatile  
  47. System unit
    • The metal or plastic case that holds all the physical parts of the computer together, including the CPU, motherboard, its memory and the many circuit boards that help the computer function.
    • Where the processing takes place and data are stores
    • System unit is the tower, the CPU is inside  
  48. Toggle keys
    • Insert key, Caps lock key, Num Lock key
    • Basically, turns something on or off 
  49. Algorithm
    A set of steps designed to solve a problem
  50. What are some backup storage devices?
    • internal hard drive
    • external hard drive
    • optical drive (cd/dvd)
    • flash drive
    • network    
  51. Which storage location cannot be used by the Windows Backup Utility?
    A. Floppy Drive
    B. Internal Hard Drive
    C. Flash Drive    
    D. Optical Drive
    A. Floppy Drive 
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. File compression
    The process of making files smaller to conserve disk space and make them easier to transfer
  53. What are the two types of file compression
    • Lossless (compressed file can be decompressed with no loss of data.)
    • Lossy (often used on image audio and video files, not possilbe to decompress because some info has been removed from the file)
  54. File extensions
    • Are assigned by the program used to create the file
    • Helps the operating system determine the type of file
    • If you change the file extension, you may no longer be able to open it  
  55. The process of opening, closing, saving, naming, deleting and organizing digital files are collectively called
    File management
  56. File properties
    • Each file contains them
    • Provide info about that file
    • Can use to organize, sort and find files more easily
    • type, size, date auto-created with the file
    • titles and authors can be added or edited by user    
  57. Folder
    A container used to organize files
  58. Hierarchy
    The user folder structure of subfolders within folders
  59. Illegal file characters
    • \ / ? : * " < > and straight up and down line
    • can't be used in a file name because they have a special meaning in Windows 
  60. Index
    Windows maintains an index of common files on each computer to speed up searching
  61. Libraries
    • Windows 7 introduced
    • Used to gather files from several locations 
  62. Path
    The sequence of folders to a file or folder
  63. T/F: Searching from the start menu yields different results than searching from Windows Exploreer because using the start menu will automatically search programs, the control panel and files, and it will search in all indexed locations. In addition to locating a file, a person can quickly launch a program by typing the name of the program in the start menu's search box
    True
  64. 3 things about searching
    • Search boxes are in the start menu, most windows, control panels and help screens
    • Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT can be used to create search filters
    • Windows maintains an index that contains info about the files located on the computer  
  65. To select multiple files in Windows Explorer
    • Press Ctrl + A
    • Press Ctrl and click on each file
    • Click the first file, press shift and click the last file  
  66. Public folders
    • are common to all users and provide an easy way to share files between them
    • can also share files across computers that are on a network or in the same homegroup 
  67. User folders
    • When a user account is added to a Windows computer, Windows will automatically create a personal user folder for that username and the subfolders inside it
    • You access your user folder through the Windows Start menu or it may appear on the desktop 
  68. Toolbar
    • contains buttons for common tasks to be performed on the items in the file list area.
    • Buttons change depending on the objects displayed 
  69. Two types of files on every computer
    • The ones the computer uses to function (programs and device drivers)
    • Files that are used and created by the computer user 
  70. Windows Explorer
    • Not used to navigate the Internet
    • The window you use to look at a library or folder
    • Use to navigate through the folders and drives on your system and to handle most file managment tasks  
  71. Zip files using Windows
    • Ability tompress and deccompress files
    • Commonly used to send files by email or download them from the Internet
    • Can contain multiple files zipped together
    • Lossless compression   
  72. Data that may be entered into a cell in a spreadsheet
    • Words/labels/text/headings
    • Values/numbers
    • Formulas + - * /
    • Functions (preprogrammed formulas, such as average)   
  73. Database application software
    • Microsoft Access, for example
    • Basically a filing system done on the computer instead of using a filing cabinet or desk drawer 
    • Best used for larger and more complicated groups of data to group, sort and retrieve data 
    • Think MSU student database
    •   
  74. Desktop Publishing Application Software
    • Used for producing magazines, newspapers, brochures and textbooks
    • Features: columns, special layouts, pictures with captions and special borders 
  75. Educational reference software
    • Encyclopaedias
    • Dictionaries
    • Test prep, such as SAT, GMAT and LSAT
    • Tutorials for typing
    • Course mangement (like Blackboard)   
  76. Freeware
    • Any copyrighted software that can be used for free
    • Games, screen savers, virus protection programs 
  77. Presentation application software
    • Used for on-screen slide shows using slide layouts, clip art and sound, video and design templates
    • Microsoft Power Point, for example 
  78. Shareware
    Software that allows users to test software (run for a limited trial period free of charge)
  79. Software license
    • An agreement between the user and the software developer that must be accepted prior to installing the software on a computer
    • A legal contract that outlines the acceptable and unacceptable uses of the program 
  80. Software piracy
    • Making illegal copies of commerical software
    • Most software is copyrighted 
  81. Software suite
    • Microsoft bundles together a collection of application software (Word, Excell, PP, Access, etc.) as a package, called a software suite
    • Less expensive than buying each program separately  
  82. Spreadsheet application software
    • Analyzes numbers
    • Tracks expenses
    • Creates budgets
    • Creates charts
    • Ex: Excel    
  83. Templates
    • Forms that provide basic structure, specific page layouts and special formatting and styles
    • Ex: Power Point templates 
  84. Wizards
    Step by step guides that walk a person through the necessary steps to complete a complicated task

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