Surgical Tech certification

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Surgical Tech certification
2010-05-22 12:30:04
Surgical Tech pharmacology anesthesia

Pharmacology and anesthesia
Show Answers:

  1. Define brand or trade name
    Name by which a pharmaceutical company identifies its product, copyrighted
  2. Define chemical name
    Scientific identification of the drug
  3. Define generic name
    Common name assigned to a drug by the original developer, nonproprietary
  4. Drugs' medicinal uses (5 things)
    • Diagnosis
    • Prevention of disease
    • Treatment of disease and dysfunction
    • Treatment of symptoms
    • Anesthetic agent
  5. Forms of drugs (4 things)
    • Gases
    • Liquids
    • Semisolids
    • Solids
  6. Sources of drugs (4 things)
    • Animals
    • Minerals
    • Plants
    • Synthetics
  7. Fahrenheit to celsius conversion
  8. Celsius to Farenheit conversion
  9. Define adrenergic
    Stimulates nerve fibers
  10. Define analgesic
    Relieves pain
  11. Define anesthetic
    Produces loss of feeling
  12. Define antibiotic
    Destroys or inhibits growth of pathogenic microorganisms
  13. 5 common antibiotics used in surgery
    • bacitracin
    • kanamycin
    • kefzol
    • neosporin
    • penicillin
  14. Describe bacitracin
    Used topically for infections caused by various bacteria, available in powder or ointment form
  15. Describe kanamycin
    Used for infections caused by E. coli and organisms resistant to other antibiotics
  16. Describe Kefzol (Ancef, Cefadyl, Keflin)
    Used for infections of the respiratory tract, skin, soft tissue, bone and joints and for septicemia
  17. Describe Neosporin
    Used in surgery to protect the wound after suturing is complete
  18. Describe Pencicillin
    For moderate to sever systemic infections caused by various bacteria
  19. Define anticholinergic
    Inhibits parasympathetic responses
  20. Define anticoagulant
    Used to delay or prevent blood coagulation and to prevent clot formation around vessels
  21. Define antidote
    Prevents or counteracts the action of a poison
  22. Define antihistamine
    Neutralizes the action of histamine in the body
  23. Define anti-inflammatory
    Counteracts or diminishes inflammation
  24. Define antypyretic
    Reduces fever
  25. Define antispasmodic
    Reduces the passing of impulses of the automatic nervous system
  26. Define contrast medium
    Foreign substance used to outline various structures through x-ray examination
  27. Define depressant
    Reduces a body function
  28. Define diuretic
    Increases the output of urine
  29. When is a diurietic used during surgery?
    Used to reduce intraocular or intracranial pressure to draw fluid away from tissues and into urinary system
  30. Four common contrast media
    • Cardiografin
    • Cholografin
    • Cysografin
    • Omnipaque
  31. 2 common diuretics used in surgery
    • Furosemide (lasix)
    • Mannitol (Osmitrol)
  32. Describe dye
    Solution that stains tissue
  33. What is brilliant green used for?
    As a stain for marking the skin
  34. What is gentian violet used for?
    As a stain for marking the skin
  35. What is indigo carmine used for?
    Colored solution for tracking fissures, fistulas and determining the patency of structures (e.g. fallopian tubes)
  36. What is Lugol's solution used for?
    Used to stain cervical tissue
  37. What is Methylene blue used for?
    A stain for marking the skin and also for urinary diagnostic procedures; may also be used to determine fallopian tube patency
  38. Describe a hemostatic agent
    Used to promote blood coagulation when there is excessive bleeding and when standard methods of hemostasis are not effective
  39. Name 5 hemostatic agents administered systemically
    • Calcium chloride (electrolyte replacement)
    • Calcium gluconate (electrolyte replacement)
    • Calcium lactate (electrolyte replacement)
    • Protamine (heparine antagonist)
    • Vitamin K
  40. 7 hemostatic agents administered topically
    • Avitene
    • Gelfilm
    • Gelfoam
    • Helistar
    • Oxycel
    • Surgicel
    • Thrombin
  41. Define hormone
    Supplement or replacement substance used to increase or decrease a functional activity or secretion
  42. Describe hypnotic
    Induces sleep
  43. Describe muscle relaxant
    Relieves muscular tension
  44. Describe narcotic
    Produces sleep, stonger than a hypnotic
  45. 6 common narcotics
    • Cocaine
    • Fentanyl
    • Loradol/Toradol
    • Meperidine (demerol)
    • MOrphine
    • Naloxone (Narcan)
    • Sufenta
  46. What is cocaine used for?
    Used in surgery on the respiratory tract to reduce bleeding and to shrink mucous membranes; administered topically, never injected
  47. What is Fentanyl used for?
    Used as an adjunct to general anesthesia to relieve pain and produce sedation
  48. What is Loradol/Toradol used for?
    Nonsteroidal antiflammatory drug that may be used for short-term pain relief
  49. What is meperidine (demerol) used for?
    Synthetic substitute for morphine that does not depress respiration
  50. What is morphine used for?
    Potent, addictive narcotic that produces sedation and depresses respiration
  51. What is naloxone (narcan) used for?
    A narcotic antagonist; should be on hand to reverse the depressant effects of narcotics
  52. What is Sufenta used for?
    Used to maintain a balanced general anesthesia
  53. Describe an oxytocic
    Used to contract the uterus and to induce labor
  54. Describe a stedative
    Quiets and relaxes but does not produce sleep
  55. Describe a steroid
    Particularly useful in cardiovascular, ophthalmic and plastic surgery to reduce tissue inflammation and post op swelling
  56. 4 common steroids used in surgery
    • Betamethasone (celestone)
    • Dexamethasone (Hexadrol, Decadron)
    • Hydrocortisone sodium succinate (Solu-Cortef)
    • Methylprednisolone sodium succinate(Solu-Medrol)
  57. Describe a tranquilizer
    Supresses mental tension and anxiety
  58. Describe a vasoconstrictor
    Constricts blood vessels
  59. Describe a vasodilator
    Dilates blood vessels
  60. 6 common iv solutions
    • Dextran
    • Dextrose solution
    • Lactated Ringer's solution (LR)
    • Normal saline solution
    • Normal serum albumen
    • Plasmalyte
  61. Describe dextran
    An artificial plasma volume expander that is especially valuable in treating shock resulting from hemorrhage
  62. Describe dextrose solution
    Used for those patients requiring a source of calories
  63. Describe lactated ringer's solution
    A salt solution that may be used to replenish the patient's supply of electrolytes
  64. Describe normal saline solution
    The most common iv solution
  65. Describe normal serul albumin
    Used to treat shock resulting from hemorrhage
  66. Describe Plasmalyte
    An electrolyte-balanced solution comparable with the pH of blood. Contains whole blood, plasma, packed blood cells and platelets
  67. Describe adrenalin
    An adrenergic used as a vasoconstrictor, a cardiac stimulant, and to relax bronchioles; it is also used to prolong the action of local anesthetics
  68. Describe aminophylline
    A spasmolytic used to treat acute and chronic bronchial asthma and pulmonary edema
  69. Describe Atropine sulfate
    Used to treat bradycardia; often given preop to dry mucous secretions
  70. Describe benadryl
    A sedating antihistamine used with epinephrine to treat anaphylaxis
  71. Describe dantrolene
    A muscle relaxant given for treatment of malignant hyperthermia
  72. Describe digitoxin
    Acts directly on the myocardium to treat congestive heart failure, slow the heart rate, and strengthen contractions
  73. Describe levophed
    An adrenergic used to restore blood pressure in acute hypotensive conditions
  74. Describe papaverine
    Vasodilator drug used to dilate small vessels for surgical procedures such as ateriovenous shunt or fistula or femoropopliteal bypass
  75. Describe potassium
    An electrolyte used to treat hypokalemia
  76. Describe sodium bicarbonate
    Used to treat metabolic acidosis, especially during cardiac arrest
  77. Describe xylocaine
    An antiarrhythmic used to treat ventricular arrhythmias or ventricular tachycardia; also used as a local anesthetic agent.
  78. ad
    up to
  79. amp
  80. cap
  81. c
  82. CD
  83. fl
  84. gtt
  85. hypo
  86. h
  87. IM
  88. IV
  89. L
  90. mg
  91. ml
  92. O.D.
    right eye
  93. O.U.
    both eyes
  94. O.S.
    left eye
  95. oz
  96. per
  97. po
    by mouth
  98. pre-op
  99. prn
    as needed
  100. q
  101. qh
    every hour
  102. R
  103. Rx
  104. s
  105. SC
  106. sol
  107. ss
    one half
  108. state
    at once
  109. U
  110. Ung
  111. 6 factors evaluated in order to determine the type of anesthetic to use
    • Anticipated length of the operation
    • For emergency surgery, the time since the patient's last meal
    • Laboratory and x-ray findings
    • Nature of the operation
    • Patient's age, condition, and build
    • Pre-existing conditions or diseases
  112. 6 reasons pre-op medications are administered
    • Assist in easier and smoother induction of anesthesia
    • Decrease secretions in the respiratory tract
    • Inhibit nausea and vomiting
    • Produce some amnesia
    • Raise the pain threshold
    • Relieve preop anxiety and apprehension
  113. 3 classes of preop medications
    • Anticholinergic drugs
    • narcotic analgesics
    • sedatives and tranquilizers
  114. Describe anticholinergic drugs
    Used if a parasympathetic depressant action is required. They stop mucous secretions in the mouth, respiratory tract and digestive tract and increase heart and respiratory rates. Are bronchiodilators with little or no effect on blood pressure.
  115. Describe narcotic analgesics
    Raise the pain threshold and effectively decrease the amount of anesthesia needed during the operation. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, respiratory depression and urinary retention.
  116. Describe sedatives and tranquilizers
    Drugs given to reduce anxiety and for sedation. Also have an antiemetic effect
  117. 4 common inhaled anesthetic agents
    • Fluothane
    • Ethrane
    • Forane
    • nitrous oxide
  118. 5 Common IV anesthetic agents
    • Sodium pentothal
    • Surital
    • Brevital
    • propofol
    • ketamine
  119. Name 4 phases of general anesthesia
    • Induction
    • Maintenance
    • Emergence
    • Recovery
  120. Describe induction stage
    Begins with administration of anesthetic agents and continues until the surgical procedure begins
  121. Describe maintenance stage
    Surgical procedure begins, and during this phase monitoring and maintaining the patient's vital functions continue
  122. Describe emergence phase
    Anesthesiologist begins to awaken the patient from the anesthesia and extubation occurs for independent breathing
  123. Describe recovery phase
    Patient enters PACU, phase lasts until patient becomes fully responsive to commands
  124. At what level is a spinal anesthetic administered?
    Below the diaphragm so the patient can still breathe on own
  125. Where is a spinal block placed?
    In the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region
  126. Where is an epidural block placed?
    Just outside the dura mater in the epidural space of the spine
  127. Describe regional anesthesia
    Pain control is obtained by anesthetizing the sensory nerves in one area or region of the body. Nerve block is placed around the main nerve trunks in the area between the incision site and the entry of those nerves into the spinal cord
  128. Describe local anesthesia
    Injected under the skin to anesthetize the nerve endings and nerve fibers. Vasoconstrictor is used in conjunction with to prolong the effect
  129. Describe monitored anesthesia care (MAC)
    Pain control is obtained by injecting the surgical site with a local. This may be supplemented with IV drugs that provide sedation and systemic analgesia
  130. 2 main possible complications of anesthesia (not including death)
    • Cardiac arrest
    • Malignant hyperthermia
  131. Describe malignant hyperthermia
    Rare, genetically transmitted life-threatening complication most frequently seen in children and adolescents. Indications include generalized contracture of skeletal muscles, temp elevation, tachycardia, metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrhythmia, and hypoxia. Treatment is immediate infusion of dantrolene.