It consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, ligaments, synovial meembranes, synovial fluids, and bursa.
What are the funtions of the skeletal system?
1. bones act as a framework of the body
2. bones support and protect internal organs
3. joints work in conjuction with the muscles, ligaments, and tendons, making possible the wide variety of body movements
4. calcium is stored in the bones
5. red bone marrow is located withing the spongy bone
is the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of the bone (peri- means surrounding oste means bone and -um is a noun ending.)
is the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms t protective outer layer of bones
is lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone. Commonly found in the ends and inner portions of the long bones. Red bone marrow is located within the spongy bone.
located in teh shaft of a long bone and is surround by compact bone.
the tissue that lines the medullary cavity (end- means within, oste means bone, and -um is a noun ending.)
Red bone marrow
is located witnin the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes.
means pertaining to the formation of blood cells (hem/o means blood and -poietic means pertaining to formation.)
Yellow bone marrow
functions as fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity.
the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between the bones. More elastic than bone. Also makes up the flexible parts of the skeleton such as the outer ear and tip of the nose.
covers the surface of the bones where they come together to form joints. Makes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each other
the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the TMJ of the jaw.
the shaft of a long bone
is covered by articular cartilage, is the wide end of a long bone.
the end of the bone that is located nearest to the midline of the body
the end og the bone that is locate furtherest away from the midline.
an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons.
the place of union between two or more bones. Classified according to either their construction or based on the degree of movement they allow.
consistinf of inflexible layers of dense connective tissues, holding the bones tightly together. In adults these joints are known as sutures which do not allow any movement. In newborns and veyr young children some fibrous joints are moveable before they solidified.
(aka spot spots) are normally present on the skull of a newborn. These flexible soft spots facilitate the passage of the infant through the birth canal. Also allow growth of the skull during the first year.
allow slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage
the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth. This joint is located between the pubic bones in the anterior of the pelvis.
creayed where two bones atriculate to permit a variety of motions. These joints are based on their type of motion
Synovial joint movements:
1. ball and socket joints, such as the hips and shoulders, allow a wide range of movement in many directions
2. hinge joints, such as the knee and elbows, allow movement primarily in one direction or plane
the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint
lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid
flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make smooth movement of the joint possible
bands of fibrous tissues that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or by joining bone to cartilage
a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction
protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems
makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of the digestive, excretion, and reproduction
consist of 8 bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and 6 bones in the middle ear
made up of the frontal, parietals, occipital, temporals, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
Bones of the face:
2 nasal bones, two zygomatic bones, two maxillary bones, two palatine bones, two lacrimal bones, two inferior canchae, vomer bone, and mandible bone.
(aka rib cage) is the bony structure that protects the heart and lungs. Consists of the ribs, sternum, and upper portion of teh spinal column extending from the neck to the diaphragm, not including th arms.
(aka costals) attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae (cost means rib and -al means pertaining to.
12 pairs of ribs:
1. true ribs are the first 7 pairs and are attached anteriorly to the sternum
2. false ribs are the next 3 pairs of ribs and are attached anteriorly to cartilage that joins with the sternum
3. floating ribs are the last two pairs of ribs and are only attached posteriorly
(aka breastbone) forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts
Parts of the sternum:
1. manubrium is the bony structure that forms the upper portion
2. body of the sternum is the bony structre that forms the middle portion of the sternum
3. xiphoid process is the structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum
the shoulders form the pectoral girdle which supports the arms and hands (aka shoulder girdle)
(aka collar bone) is a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scaupla
aka shoulder blade
is an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
the bone of the upper arm
the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm. Runs up the thumb side of teh forearm
the larger and longer bone of the forearm. The proximal end of the ulna articulates with the distal end of the humerus to form the elbow joint
8 bones that form the wrist. Form the carpal tunnel, a norrow bony passage through which the median nerve and the tendons of the fingers passes through.
5 bones that form the palms of the hand
14 bones of the fingers/toes
(aka vertebral column) supports the head abd body, and protects the spinal cord. Consists of 26 vertebrae
the bony structure units of the spinal column
Structure of the vertebrae:
1. body of the vertebrae is the solid anterior portion
2. lamina is the posterior portion of a vertebrae
3. vertebral foramen is the opening in the middle of the vertebrae
Types of vertebrae:
1. cervical vertebrae are the first set of 7 vertebrae that form the neck. C1 through C7
2. thoracic vertebrae make up the second set of 12 vertebrae. They form the outward curve of the spine and are known as T1 through T12
3. lumbar vertebrae make up the third set of 5 vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine. They are known as L1 through L5. They are the largest and the strongest of the vertebrae and bear the most of the body's weight
slightly curved, triangular shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back. At birth it's compose of 5 separate bones; however they fuse together in a young child to form a single bone
(aka tailbone) form the end if the spine and is actually made up of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together
made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other. Act as shock absorbers abd allow for movement of the spinal column
(aka pelvis or hip) protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities.
the broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and side s of the pubic bone
slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and the posterior portion of the ilium (scar/o means sacrum, ili means ilium, and -ac means pertaining to.)
forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting
forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone is located just below the urinary bladder
the ilium, ischium, and pubis are separated ar birth; however they fuse together to form the left and right pubic bones. They are held together by the pubis symphysis
(aka hip socket) the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of teh femur ti form the hip joint.
(aka thigh bone) the upper leg bone. Largest bone in the body
complex joint that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg
Parts of the knee:
1. patella (aka knee cap) is the bony anterior portion of the knee
2. popliteal referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to the joint are located
3. cruciate ligaments make possible the movements of the knee. Known and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments because they are shaped like a cross
(aka shinbone) the larger weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg
the smaller of the two bone sof the lower leg
is the rounded bony protuerance on each side of the ankle
form the joint between the lower leg and the foot. Made up of 7 short tarsal bones. Bone are similar the bones of the wrist, but are larger in size
Parts of the ankles:
1. talus the anklebone that articulates with the tibula and fibula
2. calcaneus (aka heel bone) the largest of the tarsal bones
The feet and toes:
1. 5 metatarsals form that form part of the foot to which the toes are attached
2. phalanges are the bones of the toes.
holds a doctor of chiropractor degree and specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine
(aka othropedist) is a physician who specializes in diagnosising and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
holds a doctor of osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms ofmedical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation
holds a doctor of podiatric medicine or a doctor of podiatry degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot (pod means foot and -iatrist means specialist)
is the loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure (ankyl means crooked, bent, or stiff and -osis means abnormal condition or disease)
is the stiffness of a joint, especially in the eldery (arthr/o means joints and -sclerosis means abnormal hardening)
an inflammation of a bursa (burs means bursa and -itis means inflammation)
is the abnormal softening of cartilage (chondr/o means cartilage and -malacia means abnormal softening)
is a slow-growing benign tumor dervived from cartilage cells (chondr means cartilage and -oma means tumor.)
is an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum (cost/o means ribs, chondr means cartilage, and -itis means inflammation)
(aka bunion) is an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (hallux means big toe and valgus means bent)
is the blood within a joint (hema means blood, arthr means joint, and -osis means abnormal condition or disease.) This is frequently due to a joint injury. It also can occur spontaneously in patients by taking blood-thinning medications or those having a blood clotting disorder such as hemophilia
is inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint (synov means synovial membrane and -itis means inflammtion.) This condition can be caused by arthritis, trauma, infection, or irritation produced by damaged cartilage.
(aka luxation) is the total displacement of a bone from its joint
is the partial diplacement of a bone from its joint
an inflammatory condition of one or more joints (arthr means joint and -itis means inflammation)
(aka wear-and-tear arthritis) is most commonly associated with aging (oste/o means bone arthr means joint, and -itis means inflammation.) This si a degenerative disorder because it is characterized by the wearing away of the articular cartilage within a joint.
(aka spinal osteoarthritis) is a degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function (spondyl means vertebrae and -osis means abnormal condition or disease.)
(aka gout) is a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints. Uric acid is a byproduct that is normally excreted by the kidneys. Gout develops when excess uric acid, which is present in the blood, forms crystals in the joint of the feet and legs.
is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which joints and some organs of the other body systems are attacked. Progressively attacks the synovial membranes and they become inflammed and thickened so that the joints are increasingly swollen, painful, and immobile
is a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
is an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with the symptoms that includes stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue
(aka slipped or ruptured disk) is the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
(aka lower back pain) is the pain in the lumbar region of the spine (lumb means lumbar and -ago means diseased condition)
is the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it (spondyl/o means vertebrae and -listhesis means slipping.)
is a congential defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it. Spina means pertaining to the spine and bifida means split. Some cases are due to lack of folic acid during the early stages of pregnancy
(aka humpback or dowager's hump) the an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side (kyph means hump and -osis means abnormal condition or disease.)
(aka swayback) is an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine (lord means bent backwards and -osis means abnormal condition or disease)
is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (scoli means curved and -osis means abnormal condition or disease)
is a malformation of the skull due to premature closure of the cranial sutures (crani/o means skull and -stenosis means abnormal narrowing)
is a bone disorder of unknow cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous (scar-like) tissue This leads to uneven growth, brittleness, and deformity of teh affected bones.
(aka osteodynia) means pain in a bone (oste means bone and -algia means pain)
Osteitis or ostitis
is an inflammation of bone (oste means bone and -itis meand inflammation)
(aka adult rickets) is the abnormal softening of bones in adults (oste/o means bones and -malacia means abnormal softening) This condition is usually caused by a defciency of vitamin D, calcium and/or phosphate.
is an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone (oste/o means bone, myel means bone marrow, and -itis means inflammtion) The bacterial infection that causes osteomyelitis often originates in another part of the body and spreads to the bone via the blood.
(aka osteitis deformans) is a bone disease of unkown cause. This condition is characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation. The new bone is structurally enlarged, but weakend and filled with new blood vessels
is the inflammation of the periosteum (peri- means surrounding, ost means bone, and -itis means inflammation)This condition is often asscoiated with shin splints
(aka infantile osteomalacia) is a deficiency disease occuring in children. This condition which is charaterized by defective bone growth, results from vitamin D deficiency that is sometimes due to insufficient ecposure to sunlight.
(formerly aka dwarfism) condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appopriate length. The average adult height is no more than 4'10" and the individuals are called little people
(aka clubfoot) describes any congential deformity of the foot involving the talus (ankle bone)
Primary bone cancer
a relatively rare malignant tumor that orignates in bone.
Secondary bone cancer
tumor that has metastasized to bones from organs such as breast and lungs
type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow (myel means bone marrow and -oma means tumor) this condition can cause pathological fractures and is often fatal
is a begnin bony projection covered with cartilage (oste/o means bone, chondr means cartilage, -oma means tumor)
a marked loss of bone density and in increase of bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging (oste/o means bone, por means small opening, and -osis means abnormal condition or disease)
is thinner than average bone density in a young person (oste/o means bone and -penia means deficiency) This term is used to describe the condition of someone who doesn't yet have osteoporosis, but is at risk of developing it.
(aka vertebral crush fracture) occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself. These fractures are soemtimes caused by the spontaneous collapse of weakened vertebrae or can be due to injury. This results in pain, loff of height, and development of the spinal curvature known as dowager's hump.
(aka fractured wrist) occurs at the lower end of teh radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his/her hands. The impact of the fall causes the bone weakened by osteoporosis to break
Osteoporotic hip fracture
(aka broken hip) usually caused by the weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall. Complications from these fractures can result in the loss of function, mobility, independence, or death.
(aka broken bone) is describe in terms of its complexity
(aka simple fracture or complete fracture) the bone is broken, but there's no open wound in teh skin
(aka compund fracture) the bone is broken and there's an open wound in the skin
the bone is splintered or crushed
(aka incomplete fracture) the bone is bent and only partially broken. This type of fracture occurs primarily in children
occurs at an angle across the bone
when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain. This is due to bones being weakened by osteoporosis or to a disease process such as cancer
the bone has been twisted aprt. This type of fracture occurss as the results of a severe twisting motion such as a sports injury
overuse injury, is a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact.
occurs straight across the bone
can form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood
(aka crepitus) the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together. This terms also describes the crackling sound heard in lungs affected with pneumonia and the clicking sound heard in the movement of some joints
the formation of a bulging deposit around the break of a bone as it heals.
(aka x-ray) the use of x-radiation to visualize bone fractures and other abnormalities
the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint (arthr/o means joint and -scopy means viual exmination) using an arthroscope
Bone marrow biopsy
a diagnostc test that may be necessary after abnormal types of numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete count test
Bone marrow aspiration
use of a syringe to withdraw the liquid bone marrow. This procedure is used to obtain tissue for diagnostic purposes or to collect bone marrow for medical procedures such as stem cell transplantation
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints. It's not the most effective method of imaging hard tissue such as bone
Bone density testing
used to determine losses or changes in bone density. These tests are used to diagnose condition such as osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteopenia, and Padget's disease
Ultrasonic bone density testing
screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass. In this procedure, sound waves are used to take measurements of the calcenaeous bone. If the results indicate risks, more definitive resting is indicated
Dual x-ray absorptiometry
a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density. This test produces more accurate results than ultrasonic bone density testing
Bone marrow transplant
used to treat certain types of cancers, such as leukemia and lymphomas, that affect bone marrow
Allogenic bone marrow transplant
uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor, often a sibling.
mean originationd within another
Autologous bone marrow transplant
the patient receives his/her own bone marrow cells which have beenharvested, cleansed, treated, and then stored before the remining bone marrow is destroyed
means originating within an individual
mechanical appliance such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb functions
a substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been amputated
(aka surgical ankylosis) the surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a joint (arthr/o means joint -desis means surgical fixation of bone or joint.) This procedure is performed to treat severe arthritis or a damaged joint
the surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint (arthr/o means joint and -lysis means loosening or setting free.)
minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint
the surgical removal of a bursa (burs means bursa and -ectomy means surgical removal)
is the surgical repair of damaged cartilage (chondr/o means cartilage and -plasty means surgical repair)
the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint (synov means synovial membrane and -ectomy means surgical repair)
surgical repair of a damaged joint (arthr/o means joint and -plasty means surgical repair)
Total knee replacement
(aka total knee arthroplasty) all of the parts of the knee were replaced
Partial knee replacement
only part of a knee is replaced
Total hip replacement
(aka total hip arthroplasty) performed to restore a damaged hip to full function. A plastic lining is fitted into the acetabulum to restore a smooth surface. The ehad of the femur is removed and replaced with a metal ball attached to a metal shaft that is fitted into the femur
Bone-conserving hip resurfacing
an alternative to removing head of the femur. Function is restored to the hip by placing a metal cap over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a metal lining in the acetabulum
the replacement of a worn or failed implant
performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk. A thin tube is inserted through the skin of the back to suction out the ruptured disk or to vaporize it with a laser.
performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fracture (vertebr/o means vertebrae and -plasty means surgical repair.) Bone cement is injected to stabilize compression fractures within the spinal column
surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebrae (lamin means lamina and -ectomy means surgical removal)
technique used to immobilize part of the spine by joining together two ro more vertebrae
surgical removal of a portion of the skull (crani means skull and -ectomy means surgical removal) This procedure is performed to treat craniostenosis or to relieve increased intracranial pressure due to swelling of the brain.
surgical incision or opening into the skull (crani means skull and -otomy means surgical incision) This procedure is performed to gain access to the brain to remove a tumor, to relieve intracranial pressure, or to obtain access for other surgical procedures
surgucal repair of the skull (crani/o means skull and -plasty means surgical repair)
surgical fracture a bone to correct a deformity (oste/o means bone and -clasis means to break)
surgical removal of bone (ost means bone and -ectomy means surgical removal)
surgical repair of a bone or bones (oste/o means bones and -plasty means surgical repair)
surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bone (oste/o means bone and -rrhaphy means surgical suturing)
surgical incision or sectioning of a bone (oste means bone and -otomy means a surgical incision)
an incision through the periosteum to the bone (peri- means surrounding, oste means bone, and -otomy means surgical incision)
(aka manipulation) is the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation. The affected bone is returned to its normal anatomic alignment by manually applied forces and then is usually immobilized ti maintain the realigned position during healing
(aka stabilization) the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or cast
pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so than an external appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing. When healing is complete, the appliance is removed.
(aka open reduction internal fixation) fracture treatment which a plate or pins are plced directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place. This form of fixation is not usually removed after the fracture has healed)