Exam 1: Joints of the upper extremity

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brau2308
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158975
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Exam 1: Joints of the upper extremity
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2012-06-16 14:15:33
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joints arm anatomy
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review of lecture 6/14 over joints of the upper extremity for exam 1
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  1. Which joint has the largest range of motion?
    Shoulder Joint
  2. What is another name for the shoulder joint?
    Glenohumeral Joint
  3. What helps to keep bones lubricated while they move across each other?
    hyalie cartilage
  4. What is hyaline cartilage also called?
    articular cartilage
  5. What type of joint is the shoulder joint?
    ball and socket
  6. What bones are involved in the shoulder joint?
    • head of humerous
    • glenoid fossa of scapula (including labrum glenoidal and cartilage) 
  7. What movements are possible at the shoulder joint?
    • three axes of motion:
    • flexion-extension
    • abduction-adduction
    • medial-lateral rotation
    • circumduction   
  8. Which joint is the most commonly injuried?
    shoulder joint
  9. What ligaments are associated with the shoulder joint?
    • capsular
    • glenohumeral (inferior, middle, superior)
    • transverse
    • coracohumeral
    • coracoacromial    
  10. The greater the range of motion, the ____ stability you have in a joint.
    less
  11. What is the function of the glenohumeal ligament?
    provide static stability (at rest)
  12. What is involved in the coracoacromial arch?
    • coracoacromial ligament
    • coracoid process
    • acromion process  
  13. What is the function of the coracoacromial arch?
    prevents humerus from being dislocated in superior direction
  14. Which muscles cross at the shoulder joint? 
    • subscapularis
    • supraspinatus
    • infraspinatus
    • teres minor
    • biceps brachii, long head   
  15. What prevents the long head of the biceps brachii from slipping out of its origin?
    a ligament
  16. What is a potential problem concerning the shoulder joint?
    • dislocations
    • -anterior
    • -posterior
    • -superior
    • -inferior   
  17. What joint connects the acromion process of the scapula to the clavicle?
    Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint
  18. What type of joint is the acromioclavicular joint?
    gliding with disc
  19. What bones are involved in the acromioclavicular joint?
    distal end of clavicle and acromion process of scapula
  20. What ligaments are involved ith the acromioclavicular joint?
    • joint capsule
    • acromioclavicular
    • coracoclavicular  
  21. Which ligament is injuried in shoulder separation?
    acromioclavicular ligament
  22. What movements does the acromioclavicular joint allow?
    • sliding to accommodate scapula
    • rotation (very small amount)
    • push door open (scapula retracts)
    • scapula rotates upward (laterally abd. arm above horizontal)   
  23. Which muscles are involved with the acromioclavicular joint?
    none specific for this joint
  24. What does the acromioclavicular joint play roles in?
    shoulder motion and shoulder injuries
  25. Which joint is the only one to connect the axilla and the upper extremity?
    sternoclavicular joint
  26. Is the sternoclavicular joint easily injuried?
    no, very strong
  27. What type of joint is the sternoclavicular joint?
    gliding with disc
  28. Which bones are involved in the sternoclavicular joint?
    • proximal end of cavicle
    • manubrium of sternum 
  29. What ligaments are involved with the stenoclavicular joint?
    • articular capsule
    • 2 sternoclavicular ligs (ant and post)
    • interclavicular
    • costoclavicular  
  30. What is the function of the interclavicular ligament?
    connect the clavicles to each other
  31. How many joint cavities dos the sternoclavicular joint have?
    2
  32. What are joint cavities filled with?
    synovial fluid
  33. What is the function of the costoclavicular ligament?
    limits how far the clavicle can move when you shrug your shoulder
  34. What is an articular disk made of?
    fibrocartilage
  35. What is fibrocartilage?
    collagen fibers
  36. The sternoclavicular join has 2 synovial cavities and...
    an articular disc
  37. What motions are possible with the sternoclavicular joint?
    • sliding with some rotation
    • actions in two planes of motion (back and forth, up and down) 
  38. Which muscles are involved with the sternoclavicular joint?
    • most mm. moving clavicle and scapula also move this joint
    • sternocleidomastoid  
  39. What is the sternoclavicular joint's role in shoulder motion?
    • necessary for full range of motion
    • crankshaft
  40. What type of joint is the thoracoscapular "joint"?
    atypical
  41. What bones are involved with the thoracoscapular "joint"?
    none in contact or connected by ligaments
  42. What motion is possible with the thoracoscapular joint?
    scapula must be able to move freely on thorax for full rage of motion at the shoulder joint
  43. What factors contribute to stability of shoulder joint?
    • intrinsic muscles of glenohumeral joint (rotator cuff)
    • glenoid labrum
    • coracoacromial arch as a secondary socket
    • coracoclavicular ligaments   
  44. What factors contribute to the freedom of motion with the shoulder joint?
    • bony arrangement of primary socket
    • sternoclavicular joint
    • location of muscles crossing joint
    • thoracoscapular freedom   
  45. What type of joint is the elbow joint?
    hinge with three joints in one capsule
  46. What bones are involved with the elbow joint?
    • distal end of humerus; trochlea on medial side and capitulum on lateral side
    • proximal end of ulna; trochlear notch
    • proximal end of radius- head- superior aspect  
  47. What movements are possible at the elbow joint?
    flexion and extension
  48. Where is the articular capsule of the elbow joint found?
    attached proximally all around articular surface of humerus and distally to neck of radius, coronoid process and olecranon of ulna
  49. What ligaments are involved with the elbow joint?
    • medial (ulnar) collateral
    • lateral (radial) collateral
    • annular ligament 
  50. Where is the medial collateral ligament located?
    fan shaped from medial epicondyle of humerus to coronoid process of ulna
  51. Where is the lateral collateral ligament found?
    cord extending from lateral epicondyle of humerus to annular ligament and radius below it
  52. Which muscles cross the elbow joint?
    • Flexors:
    • -biceps brachii
    • -brachialis
    • -pronator teres
    • -brachioradialis
    • Extensors
    • -triceps brachii
    • -anconeus   
  53. What type of joint is the proximal radioulnar joint?
    trochiod or pivot, included in elbow joint capsule
  54. What bones are involved in the proximal radioulnar joint?
    • ulna -radial notch
    • radius -neck 
  55. What movement is possible at the proximal radioulnar joint?
    pronation and supination
  56. What ligaments are involved in the proximal radioulnar joint?
    annular ligament
  57. Where is the annular ligament found?
    from edges of radial notch on ulna
  58. What muscles are involved in the proximal radioulnar joint?
    • Pronators
    • -pronator teres
    • -pronator quadratus
    • Supinators
    • -supinator
    • -biceps brachii     
  59. What type of joint is the middle radioulnar joint?
    syndesmosis (interosseous membrane)
  60. What is the function of the middle radioulnar joint?
    • provides no movement
    • serves to transfer force received from the hand via the radius t the ulna and by doing so sends the force along the stronger side of the forearm
    • area of muscle origin for deeper members of the flexor-pronator group on the anterior aspect, and the extensor-supinator group on the posterior aspect
    • assists in maintaining socket of wrist joint   
  61. What type of joint is the distal radioulnar joint?
    trochoid or pivot
  62. Where is the distal radioulnar joint?
    between ends of radius and ulna
  63. Which joint is easily dislocated in small children?
    proximal radioulnar joint
  64. Does the ulna articulate with any carpal bones?
    no
  65. What bones are involved with the distal radioulnar joint?
    • ulna -head plus ulnar disc
    • radius -ulnar notch 
  66. What motions are possible at the distal radioulnar joint?
    pronation and supination
  67. What muscles are involved with the distal radioulnar joint?
    • pronators
    • -pronator teres
    • -pronator quadratus
    • supinators
    • -supinator
    • -biceps brachii    
  68. What ligaments are involved with the distal radioulnar joint?
    • distal radioulnar -anterior and posterior
    • attachments of disc to fovea of ulna and edges of ulnar notch on radius
    • articular disc  
  69. Which joint does the distal radioulnar joint share a joint capsule with?
    wrist joint
  70. What is another name for the wrist joint?
    radiocarpal joint
  71. What type of joint is the wrist joint?
    ellipsoid
  72. What bones are involved with the wrist joint?
    • radius (distal surface)
    • ulnar disc
    • carpals, proximal row (scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum)  
  73. Is the pisiform bone involved with the wrist joint?
    no
  74. What motions are possible at the wrist joint?
    • two axes of motion
    • -flextion and extension
    • -abduction and addution  
  75. What ligaments are involved with the wrist joint?
    • joint capsule
    • dorsal and palmar radiocarpal ligaments
    • radial collateral
    • ulnar collateral   
  76. Where is the radial collateral ligament of the wrist joint found?
    styloid process of radius to scaphid and trapezium
  77. Where is the ulnar collateral ligament of the wrist joint found?
    styloid process to triquetra and hamate
  78. Which flexor muscles cross at the wrist joint?
    • flexor carpi radialis
    • flexor carpi ulnaris
    • palmaris longus
    • long flexors of thumb and fingers    
  79. Which extensor muscles cross at the wrist joint?
    • extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
    • extensor carpi ulnaris
    • extensors of thumb and fingers   
  80. Which abductor muscles cross at the wrist joint?
    combined action of flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis
  81. Which adductor muscles cross at the wrist joint?
    combined action of flexor carpi ulnaris and extensor carpi ulnaris
  82. What type of joint is the transverse carpal joint?
    gliding
  83. Each carpal bone is surrounded by what where they articulate with each other?
    hyaline cartilage
  84. What bones are involved with the transverse carpal joint?
    • proximal carpals
    • distal carpals (trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate) 
  85. What motions are possible at the transverse carpal joint?
    nothing independent, supplemental to motions of wrist
  86. What ligaments are involved with the transverse carpal joint?
    joint capsule rinforced by dorsal and palmar ligaments
  87. What muscles are involved with the transverse carpal joint?
    anything crossing this joint can move it
  88. What type of joint is the 1st carpometacarpal joint?
    saddle joint with three axes of motion
  89. What type of joints are the 2nd-5th carpometacarpal joints?
    gliding joints
  90. What motions are possible at the 1st carpometacarpal joint?
    • flextion and extension
    • adduction and abduction
    • medial and lateral rotation  
  91. What motions are possible at the 2nd and 3rd carpometacarpal joints?
    very limited, area of strength in hand
  92. What motions are possible at the 4th and 5th carpometacarpal joints?
    some flexion and extension increases grasp
  93. What type of joint is the metacarpophalangeal joint?
    condyloid
  94. What bones are involved with the metacarpophalangeal joint?
    • metacarpals (1st-5th)
    • proximal phalanges (1st-5th) 
  95. What motions are possible at the metacarpophalangeal joints?
    • flexion and extions
    • adduction and abduction 
  96. What ligaments are involved in the metacarpophalangeal joint?
    joint capsule reinforced by dorsal and palmar ligaments with heavy transverse metacarpal ligament on palmar side
  97. What muscles are involved witht he metacarpophalangeal joint?
    • long flexors and extensors of digits
    • lumbricales
    • dorsal interosseous mm.
    • palmar interosseou mm.  
  98. What type of joints are the interphalangeal joints?
    condyloi
  99. Where are the proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP)?
    proximal phalanges (1st-5th) articulate with middle phalanges forming these joints
  100. Where are the distal interphalangea joints (DIP)?
    middle phalnages (2nd-5th) articulate with distal phalanges forming these joints
  101. What motions are possible at interphalangeal joints?
    flexion and extension
  102. What muscles are involved in interphalangeal joints?
    • Extensors
    • -all extensor mm. via extensor hood mechanism
    • -lumbicales by insertion into extensor tendons  
    • Flexors
    • -DIP exclusively by flexor digitorum profundus
    • - PIP by both digital flexors  
  103. What is the general rule with blood supply to joints?
    if an artery passes over or next to a joint, it supplies that joint

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