Infectious Diseases

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Infectious Diseases
2012-06-16 14:20:34
Patho pharm HMIT210

Infectious Diseases Study Guide question 1 - 7
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  1. define or identify principles of infectious diseases such as
    • Most microorganisms do not cause disease
    • Disease-causing microorganisms are known as pathogens or infectious agents
    • Some microorganisms have existed for centuries
    • Other microorganisms have emerged as new infections (or pathologies)
    • Some microorganisms contribute to nosocomial infections
    • Occupational exposure to human blood is a potential risk factor for infection
    • microorganisms
  2. Examples of infectious Diseases existing for centuries
    •      Malaria
    •      Tuberculosis
    •      Leprosy
    •      Measles
  3. Emerging infections of pathologies
    •      Previously undetected or unknown infectious
    • agents
    •      Previously known agents that have spread to
    • new geographic locations or new populations
    •      Previously known agents whose role in
    • specific disease has previously gone unrecognized
    •      Re-emergence of agents (infectious diseases
    • whose incidence had significantly declined in the past, but reappeared
  4. Examples of emerging infections or  pathologies

         Eboli Virus

         Avian Flu
  5. Superinfection
    A new infection complicating the course of antimicrobial therapy of an existinginfection due to proliferation of bacteria or fungi resistant to the antibioticin use or a second infection following an initial infection due tomicroorganism developing resistance to the antibiotic used to treat the initial infection
  6. Nonsocomial
    • 1.7 million patient infected yearly
    •      Causes - Patient normal flora, healthcare staff, contaminated equipment
    •      Hand washing-most effective means of preventing spread of nosocomial infections
  7. Occupational exposure to human blood is a potential risk factor for infection microorganisms
    Susceptibility after single needle stick or cut exposure – HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C
  8. Communicable (contagious)
    transmitted by human contact i.e. measles, influenza
  9. Noncommunicable
    Cannon be transmitted directly by human contact (i.e. rabies, cholera)
  10. Latent Period
    (AKA Latency – the time from infection until when a person becomes infectious
  11. Incubation Period
    the time from the intital infection until the onset of clinical symptoms
  12.           Period of communicability
    the person which an individual is infectious and can spread to other hosts
  13. Endemic
    disease exists, but at a low level in population 
  14. Epidemic
    Disease occulting in unusually large numbers over a specific area
  15. Pandemic
    an epidemic that has spread and includes several large areas worldwide
  16. Outbreak
    a disease occurs suddenly in unexpected numbers in a limited area and then subsides – i.e. West Nile Measles, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome 
  17. Notifiable disease
    • certain disease under constant surveillance in USA – i.e. STDs Measles, Mumps, Polio, Tuberculosis, Legionnaires disease,
    • Tetanus
  18. describe features of normal flora or microbiota
    •     100 trillion organisms
    •      Generally not harmful to healthy individual
    •      May Provide protection from harmful microogranisms, however may become harmful as opportunistic pathogens (HIV)
    •       May cause disease in weakened or immunocompromised individual

  19. factors influencing transmission of infectious diseases


         Different type of transmission

         Control of infectious diseases
  20. Reservoir
    Sources of infectious agents include: Humans, animals, insects, soil, water
  21. Carrier
    Harbors an infectious agent but does not have signs or symptoms of disease i.e Typhoid Mary
  22. What are Different types of transmission
    horizontal; vertical; parenteral; direct; indirect; fomites
  23. Horizontal transmission
    from infected human to susceptible human i.e. influenza, gonorrhea
  24. Vertical transmission
     from infected mother to newborn i.e. HIV, eye infection
  25. Parenteral Transmission
    • Punctures, infections,
    • bites, surgery
  26. Direct Transmission
    individual comes in contact with reservoir – touching kissing, sex, sneezing coughing…etc

  27. Indirect transmission
    • when infectious agent withstands environment outside its host (remain airborne for prolonged time)
    • i.e. tuberculosis, measles

  28. Fomites
    contaminated inanimate objects such as Kleenex, syringes, utensils
  29. Control of infectious disease
    Isolation, Quarantine, Disinfection