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What defines psychology as a field of study and what are psychologies four primary goals?
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes. To study behavior and mental processes in both animals and humans, researchers have to observe them.
- What is happening? Description
- Why is it happening? Explanation
- When will it happen again? Prediction
- How can it be changed? Control
How did structuralism and functionalism differ, and who were the important people in those early fields?
In 1879 psychology began as a scienc of its own in Germany with the establishment of Wundt's psychology laboratory. He developed the technique of objective introspection.
Titchener, a student of Wundt's, brought psychology in the form of structuralism to America. Structuralism died out in the early twentieth century. Margaret F. Washburn, Titchener's student, was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology in 1894 and published The Animal Mind.
William James proposed a countering point of view called functionalism, that stressed the way the mind allows us to adapt.
Functionalism influenced the modern fields of educational psychology, evolutionary psychology and industrial/organization psychology.
What were the basic ideas and who were the important people behind the early approaches known as Gestalt, psychoanalysis and behaviorism?
Wertheimer and others studied sensation and perception, calling the new perspective Gestalt (an organized whole) psychology.
Freud proposed that the unconcious mind controls most of our conscious behavior in this theory called psychoanalysis.
Watson proposed a science of behavior called behaviorism, which focused only on the study of observable stimuli and responses.
Watson and Rayner demonstrated that a phobia could be learned by conditioning a baby to be afraid of white rat.
Mary Cover Jones later demonstrated that a learned phobia could be counterconditioned.
What are the basic ideas behind the seven modern perspectives, as well as the important contributions of Skinner, Maslow and Rogers?
Modern Freudians such as Anna Freud, Jung and Adler changed the emphasis in Freud's original theory into a kind of neo-Freudianism. Psychodynamic Perspective
Skinner's operant conditioning of voluntary behavior became a major force in the twentieth century. He introduced the concept of reinforcement to behaviorism. Behavioral Perspective
Humanism, which focuses on free will and the human potential for growth, was developed by Maslow and Rogers, amonth others, as a reaction to the deterministric nature of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Humanistic Perspective
Cognitive psychology is the study of learning, memory, language and problem solving. Cognitive Perspective
- Sociocultural Perspective combines two areas of study: social and cultural psychology. Lev Vygotsky used these concepts in forming his sociocultural theory of children's cognitive development.
- Biopsychology emerged as the study of the biological bases of behavior. Biopsychological Perspective.
The principles of evolution and the knowledge we currently have about evolution are used in the perspective to look at the way the mind works and why it works as it does. Behavior is seen as having an adpative or survival value. Evolutionary Perspective
How does a psychiatrist differ from a psychologist, and what are the other types of professionals who work in the various areas of psychology?
Psychiatrists are medical doctors who provide diagnosis and therapy for persons with mental disorders, whereas psychoanalysts are psychiatrists or psychologists with special training in the theory of psychoanalysis.
Psychiatric social workers are social works with special training in the influnces of the environment on mental illness.
Psychologists have academic degrees and can do counseling, teaching and research and may specialize in any one of the large number of areas with psychology.
There are many different areas of specialization in psychology, including clinical, counseling, developmental, social and personality as ares of work or study.
Why is psychology considered a science, and what are the steps in using the scientific method?
The scientific method is a way to determine facts and control the possibilities of error and bias when observing behaior. The five steps are perceiving the questions, forming a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, drawing conclusions and reporting the results.
How are naturalistic and laboratory settings used to describe behavior, and what are some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with these settings?
Naturalistic observations involve watching animals or people in their natural environments but have the disadvantage of lack of control.
Laboratory observations involve watching animals or people in an artifiical but controlled situation, such as a lab.
How are case studies and surveys used to describe behavior and what are some drawbacks to each of these methods?
Case studies are detailed investigations of one subject, whereas surveys involve asking standardized questions of large groups of people that repreent a sample of the population of interest.
Information gained from case studies cannot be applied to other cases. People responding to surveys may not always tell the truth or remember informtion correctly.
What is the correlational technique, and what does it tell researchers about relationship?
Correlation is a statistical technique that allows researchers to discover and predict relationships between variables of interest.
Positive correlations exist when increases in one variable are matched by increases in the other variable, whereas negative correlations exist when increases in one variable are matched by decreases in the other variable.
Correlations cannot be used to prove cause-and-effect relationships.
How are operational definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups and random assignment used in designing an experiment?
Experiments are tightly controlled manipulations of variables that allow researchers to determine cause-and-effect relationships.
The independent variable in an experiement in the variable that is deliverately manipulated by the experimenter to see if related changes occur in the behavior or responses of the participants and is given to the experimental group.
The dependent variable in an expermient is the meausured behavior or responses of the participants.
The control group receives either a placebo treatment or nothing.
Random assignment of participants to experimental groups helps to control for individual differences both within and between the groups that might otherwise interefere with the experiment's outcome.
How do the placebo and experimenter effects cause problems in an experiment, and how can single-blind and double-blind studies control for these effects?
Experiments in which the subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or control groups are single-blind studies, whereas experiements in which neither the experminters nor the subjects know this information are called double-blind studies.
What are some basic elements of Amabile's creativity experiment?
Dr. Teresa Amabile's experiment explored the relationship of rewards and creativity by promising a reward to one group of children for being creative (the experminetal group) and not to a second group of children, who were being creative for fun (the control group).
Her conlucsion was that external rewards have a negative effect on creativity.
What are some eithical concerns that can occur when conducting research with people and animals?
Ethical guidelines for doing research with human beings include the protection of rights and well-being of participants, informed consent, justification when deception is used, the right of participants to withdraw at any time, protection of participants from physical or psychological harm, confidentiality and debriefing of participents at the end of the study.
Animals in psychololgical research make useful models because they are easier to control than humans, they have simpler behavior and they can be used in ways that are not permissible with humans.
What are the basic principles of critical thinking and how can critical thining be used in everyday life?
Critical thinking is the ability to make reasoned judgements. The four basic criteria of critical thinking are that there are few concepts that do not need to be tested, evidence can vary in quality, claims by experts and authorities do not automatically make something true and keeping an open mind is important.
Faulty reasoning and failure to use critical thinking can lead to belief in false systems such a palmistry and graphology.
What are the nervous system, nerons and nerves, and how do they relate to one another?
The nervous system is a complex network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body.
How do neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate with each other and with the body?
- The brain is made up two types of cells, neurons and glial cells.
Neurons have dendrites
, which receive input, a soma
or cell body, and axons
that carry the neural message to other cells.
Glial cells separate, support and insulate the neurons from each other and make up 90 percent of the brain.
insulates and protects the axons of the neurons that travel in the body. These axons bundle together in cables called nerves
. Myelin also speeds up the neural message.
Neurons in the peripheral nervous system are also coated with neurilamma
, which allows the nerves to repair themselves.
A neuron contains charged particles called ions
. When at rest, the neruon is negatively charged on the inside and positively charged on the outside. When stimulated, this reverses the charge by allowing positive sodium ions to enter the cell. This is the action potential
Neurons fire in an all-or-nothing
manner. It is the speed and number of neurons firing that tell researchers the strength of the stimulus.
in the end of the axon terminal release neurotransmitter chemicals into the synapse
, or gap, between one cell and the next. The neurotransmitter molecules fit into receptor sites
on the next cell, stimulating or inhibiting that cell's ifring. Nuerotransmitters may be either excitatory
The first known neurostramitter was acetycholine
. It simulates muscles and helps in memory formation, Curare
is a poison that blocks its effect.
is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. High amounts of GABA are released when drinking alchohol.
is associated with sleep, mood and appetite.
is assoicated with Parkinsons' disease and schizophrenia.
are neural regulators that control our pain response.
Most neurotransmitters are taken back into the synpatic veiscles in a process called reuptake
Aethycholine is cleared out of the synapse by enzymes that break up the molecules.
How do the brain and spincal cord interact?
The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
The spinal cord serves two functions. The outer part of the cord transmitts messages to and from the brain, whereas the inner part controls lifesaving reflexes such as the pain response.
Spinal cord reflexes involve afferent neurons, interneurons and efferent neurons, forming a simple reflex arc.
Great strides are being made in spinal cord repair and the grown of new neurons in the central nervous system.
Research suggest that stem cells can be obtrained from adult bone marrow, making the repair and replacement of damaged neurons more feasible.
What is the peripheral nervous system, and what are its two systems?
The peripheral nervous system is all the neurons and nerves that are not part of the brain and spinal cord and that extend throughout the body.
There are two systems within the peripheral nervous sytem, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
How do the somatic and autonomic nervous systems allow poeple and animals to interact with their surroundings and control the body's automatic functions?
The somatic nervous system contains the sensory pathway, or neurons carrying messages to the central nervous system, and the motor pathway, or neurons carrying message from the central nervous system to the voluntary muscles.
The autonomic nervous system consists of the parasympathetic divsion and the sympathetic divison. The sympathetic division is our fight-or-flight system, reacting to stress, where the parasympathetic division restores and maintains normal day-to-day functioning of organs.
How do psychologists study the brain and how it works?
We can study the brain by using deep lesioning to destroy certain areas of the brain in laboratory animals or by electrically sitmulating those areas (ESB).
We can use case studies of human brain damage to learn about the brain's functions but cannot easily generalize from one case to another.
The EEG machine allows researchers to look at the activity of the surface of the brain through the use of electrodes placed on the scalp and connected to graph paper.
CT scans are computer-aided X-rays of the brain and show a great deal of brain structure.
MRI scans use a magnetic field and a computer to give researchers an even more detailed look at the structure of the brain. A related techinque, fMRI, allows researchers t look at the activity of the brain over a time period.
PET scans use a radiocative sugar injected into the bloodstream to track the activity of brain cells, which is enhanced and color-coded by a computer.
What are the different structures of the bottom part of the brain and what do they do?
The medulla is at the very bottom of the brain and top of the spinal column. It controls life-sustaning functions such as breathing and swallowing. The nerves from each side of the body also cross over in this structure to opposite sides.
The pons is above the medulla and acts as a bridge between the lower part of the brain and the uper part. It influcneses sleep, dreaming, arousal and coordination of movement on the left and right sides of the body.
The reticular formation runs through the medulla and the pons and controls our selective attention and arousals.
The cerebellum is found at the base and back of the brain and coordinates fine, rapid motor movement, learned reflexes, posture and muscle tone.
What are the structures of the brain that control emotion, learning, memory and motiviation?
The thalamas is the switching station that sends sensory information to the proper areas of the cortex.
The hypothalamus controls hunger, thirst, sleep, sexual behavior, sleeping and waking, and emotions. It also controls the pituitary gland.
The limbic system consists of the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala and the formix.
The hippocampus is the part of the brain repsonsible for storing memories and remembering locations of objects.
The amydgala controls our fear response and memory of fearful stimuli.
What parts of the cortex control the different senses and the movement of our body?
The cortex is the outer covering of the cerebrum and consists of a tightly packed layer of neurons about one-tench of an inch in thickness. Its wrinkles, or corticalization, allow for great cortical area and are asssociated with greater intelligence.
The cortex is divided into two cerebral hemispheres connected by a think band of neural fibers called the corpus callosum.
The occipital lobes at the back and base of each hemisphere process vision and contain the primary visual cortex.
The parietal lobes at the top and back of the cortex contain the somatosensory areas, which procesess our sense of touch, temperature and body position. Taste is also processed in this lobe.
The temporal lobes contain the primary auditory area and are also invovled in understanding language.
The fronal lobes contain the motor cortex, which controls the voluntary muscles and are also where all the higher mental functions occur, such as planning, language and complex decision making.
What parts of the cortex are responsible for higher forms of throught, such as language?
Association areas of the cortex are found in all the lobes but particulary in the frontal lobes. These areas help people make sense of the information they receive from the lower areas of the brain.
An area called Broca's area in the left frontal lobe is responsible for producing fluent, understandable speech. If damaged, the person has Brocha's aphasia in which words will be halting and pronounced incorrectly.
An area called Wernicke's area in the left temporal lobe is responseible for the understanding of lanauge. If damaged, the person has Wernicke's aphasia in which speech is fluent but nonsensical. The wrong words are used.
Spacial neglect comes from damage to the association areas on ones side of the cortex, usually the right side. A person with this condition will ignore information from the opposite side of the body or the opposite visual field.
How does the left side of the brain differe from the right side?
Studies with split-brain patients, in which he corpus callosum has been severed to correct epilepsy, reveal that the left side of the brain seems to control language, writing, logical thought, analysis and mathematical abilties. The left side also processes information sequentially.
The right side of the brain processes information globally and controls emotional expression, spatial perception, recognition of faces, patterns, melodies and emotions. The left hemisphere can speak but the right cannot.
How do the hormones released by glands intereact with the nervous system and affect behavior?
Endocrine glands secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream, influencing the activity of the muscles and organs.
The pituitary gland is found in the brain just below the hypothalamus. It has two parts, the anterior and the posterior. It controls the levels of salt and water in the system and, in women, the onset of labor and lactation, as well as secreting growth hormone and unfluencing the activity of the other glands.
The pineal gland is also located in the brain. It secretes melatonin, a homone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle in response to changes in light.
The thyroid gland is located inside the neck. It controls metabolism (the burning of energy) by secreting thyroxin.
The pancreas controls the level of sugar in the blood by secreting insulin and glucagons. Too much insulin produces hyopglycemia, whereas too little causes diabetes.
Reflection on mirror neurons.
Italian scientist Rizzolatti and colleagues discovered the existence of mirror neurons, neurons that not only fire when performing an action but also fire when the organisim merely watches an action being performed by another.
Mirron neurons may explain much of human social interactions and may be useful in understanding disorders such as autism. There may also be practical applications in the treatment of stroke patients who need to regain lost skills and in therapy for psychological disorders such as depression.
How does sensation travel through the central nervous system, and why are some sensations ignored?
Sensation is the activation of receptors located in the eyes, ears, skin, nasal cavities and tongue.
Sensory receptors are specialized forms of neurons that are activated by different stimuli such as light and sound.
A just noticeable diffrence is the point at which a stimulus is detectable half the time it is present.
Weber's law of just noticeable differences states that the just noticable difference between two stimuli is always a constant.
Absolute thresholds are the smallest amount of energy needed for conscious detection of a stimulus at least half the time it is present.
Subliminal stimuli are just below the level of conscious awareness but have not been shown to affect behavior in day-to-day life.
Habituation occurs when the brain ignores a constant stimulus.
Sensory adaptation occurs when the sensory receptors stop responding to a constant stimulus.
What is light, and how does it travel through the various parts of the eye?
Brightness corresponds to the amplitude of light waves, whereas color corresponds to the length of light waves.
Saturation is the psychological interpretation of wavelengths that are all the same (highly saturated) or varying (less saturated).
Light enters the eye and is focused through the cornea, passes through the aqueous humor, and then through the hole in the iris muscle called the pupil.
The lens also focuses the light on the retina, where it passes through ganglion and bipolar cells to stimulate the rods and cones.
How do the eyes see, and how do the eyes see different colors?
Rods detect changes in brightness but do not see color and function best is low levels of light. They do not respond to different colors and are found everywhere in the retina except the center of the fovea.
Cones are sensitive to colors and work best in bright light. They are resposible for the sharpness of visual information and are found in the fovea.
Trichromatic theory of color perception assumes three types of cones: red, green and blue. All colors would be perceived as combinations of these three.
Opponent-process theory of color perception assumes four primary colors of red, green, blue and yellow. Cones are arranged in pairs, and when one member of a pair is activitated, the other is not.
Color blindness is either a total lack of color perception or color perception that is limited to yellows and blues or reds and greens only.
What is sound, and how does it travel through the various parts of the ear?
Sound has three aspects: pitch (frequencey), loudness and timbre (purity).
Sound enters the ear through the visible outer structure, or pinna, and travels to the eardrum and then to the small bones of the middle ear.
The bone called the stirrup rests on the oval window, causing the cochlea and basilar membrane to vibrate with sound.
The organ of Corti on the basilar membrane contains the auditory receptors, which send signals to the brain about sound qualities as they vibrate.
Place theory states that the location of the hair cells on the ogan of Corti correspond to different pitches of sound. This explains pitch above 1,000 Htz.
Frequency theory states that the speed with which the basilar membrane vibrates corresponds to different pitches of sound. This explains pitch below 100 Hz.
The volley principle states that neruons take turns firing for sounds above 100 Hz and below 1,000 Hz.
Why are some people unable to hear, and how can their hearing be improved?
Conduction hearing impairment is caused by damage to the outer or middle ear structure, whereas nerve hearing impairment is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory pathways in the brain.
How do the senses of taste and smell work, and how are they alike?
Gustation is the sense of taste. Taste buds in the tongue receive molecules of substances, which fit into receptor sites.
The five basic types of taste are sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami (brothy).
Olfaction is the sense of smell. The olfactory receptors in the upper part of the nasal passages receive molecules of substances and create neural signals that then go to the olfactory bulbs under the frontal lobes.
What allows people to experience the sense of touch, pain, motion and balance?
Pacinian corpuscles response to pressure, certain nerve endings around hair follicles respond to pain and pressure, and free nerves endings respond to pain, pressure and temperature.
The gate-control theory of pain states that when receptors sensitive to pain are stimulated, a neurotransmitter called substance P is released into the spinal cord, activating other pain receptors by opening "gates" in the spinal column and sending the message to the brain.
The kinesthetic senses allow the brain to know its position in space through the activity of special receptors that are responsive to pressure inside the body.
The vestibular sense also contribues to the body's sense of spatial orientation through the activity of the otolith ograns (up and down movement) and the semicircular canals (movement through arcs).
Motion sickness is explained by sensory conflict theory, in which information from the eyes conflicts with information from the vestibular sense, causing nausea.
What are perception and perceptual constancies?
Perception is the interpretation and organization of sensations.
Size constancy is the tendency to perceive objects as always being the same size, no matter how close or far aware they are.
Shape constancy is the tendency to perceive objects as remaining the same shape even when the shape of the object changes on the retina of the eye.
Brightness contancy is the tendency to perceive objects as a certain level of brightness, even when the light changes.
What are the Gestalt principles of perception?
The Gestalt psychologists developed several principles of perceptions that involve interpreting patterns in visual stimuli. The principles are figure-ground relationship, closure, similarity, continuity, contiguity and common region.
How do infants develope perceptual abilities, including the perception of dept and its cues?
Depth perception is the ability to see in three dimensions. Infants as young as 2 months can detect depth.
Monocular cues for depth perception include linear perspective, relative size, overlap, aerial perspective, texture gradient, motion parallax and accommodation.
Binocular cues for depth perception include convergence and binocular overlap.
What are visual illusions and how can they and other factors influence and alter perception?
Illusions are perceptions that do not corresond to reality or are distortions of visual stimuli.
The Muller-Lyer illusion involves the misperception of two lines of equal length as being different in length because of angles placed on the ends of each line.
The moon illusion occurs when the moon appears to be larger on the horizon than high in the sky. It is explained by the apparent distance hypothesis, which involves misinterprettion of size constancy.
Perceptural set or expectancy refers to the tendency to perceive objects and situations in a particular way because of prior experiences.
Top-down processing involves the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole.
Bottom-up processing involves the analysis of smaller features, building up to a complete perception.
Thinking critically about ESP.
Extrasensory perception (ESP) is a claim of perception that occurs without the use of normal sensory channels such as sight, hearing, touch, taste or smell.
ESP claimed abilities include telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition.
Research has produced some support for ESP; but critics claim these studies were flawed. Other research has failed to find any support for the claims of ESP.
What does it mean to conscious, and are there different levels of consciousness?
Consciousness is a person's awareness of everything that is going on at any given moment. Most waking hours are spent in waking consciousness.
Altered states of consciousness are shifts in the quality or pattern of mental activity.
Why do people sleep, and ow does sleep work?
Sleep is a circadian rhythm, lasting 24 hours, and is a product of the activity of the hypothalamus, the hormone melatonin, the neurotransmitterr serotonin and body temperature.
Adaptive theory states that sleep evolved as a way to conserve enegry and keep animals safe from predators that hunt at night.
Restorative theory states that sleep provides the body with an opportunity to restore chemicals that have been depleted during the day as well as the growth and repair of cell tissues.
The average amount of sleep needed by most people is about 7 to 8 hours within each 24-hour period.
What are the different stages of sleep, including the stage of dreaming and its importance?
Stage One sleep is light sleep.
Stage Two sleep is indicated by the presense of sleep spindles, bursts of activity on the EEG.
Stage Three sleep is highlighted by the first appearance of delta waves, the slowest and larges waves, whereas Stage Four sleep is predominantly delta waves, and the body is at its lowest level of functioning.
How do sleep disorders interfere with normal sleep?
Sleepwalking and sleeptalking occur in Stage Four sleep.
Night terrors are attacks of extreme fear that the victim has while sound asleep.
REM sleep occurs four or five times a night, replacing Stage One sleep in the sleep-wake cycle, and is accomplished by paralysis of the voluntary muscles.
Nightmares are bad or unpleasant dreams that occur during REM sleep.
REM behavior disorder is a rare condition in which REM paralysis fails and the person moves violently while dreaming, often acting out the elements of the dream.
What are some other sleep disorders?
Sleepwalking has been used as a defense in numerous cases of murder. In many of these cases, the defendant has been acquitted because of the sleepwalking defense.
Insomnia is an inability to get to sleep, stay asleep or get enough sleep.
Sleep apnea occurs when the person stops breathing for nearly half a minute or more, followed by gasping for breath.
Narcolepsy is a genetic disorder in which the person suddenly and without warning collapses into REM sleep.
Why do people dream, and what do they dream about?
Manifest content of a dream is the actual dream and it events. Latent content of a dream is the symbolic content, according to Freud.
Without outside sensory information to explain the activiation of the brain cells in the cortex by the pons area, the assocation areas of the cortex sythesize a story, or dream, to explain that activation in the activation-synthesis hypothesis.
A revision of activation-systhesis theory, the activation-information-mode mode (AIM) states that information experienced during waking hours can influence the sythesis of dreams.
How does hypnosis affect consciousness?
Hypnosis is a state of consciousness in which a person is espcially susceptible to suggestion.
The hypnotist will tell the person to relax and feel tired, to focus on what is being said, to let go of inhibitions and accept suggestions, and to use vivid imagination.
Hypnosis cannot give increased strength, reliably enhance memory or regress people to an earler age or an earlier life, but it can produce amnesia, reduce pain and alter sensory impressions.
Hilgard believed that a person under hypnosis is in a state of dissociation, in which one part of consciousness is hypnotized and susceptible to suggestion, while another part is aware of everything that occurs.
Other theorist believe that the hypnotized subject is merely playing a social role -- that of the hypnotized person. This is called the social-cognitive theory of hypnosis.
What is the difference between a physical dependence and a psychological dependence on a drug?
Drugs that are physically addictive cause the user's body to crave the drug. When deprived of the drug, the user will go through physical withdrawal.
Drug tolerance occurs as the user's body becomes conditioned to the level of the drug. After a time, the user must take more and more of the durg to get the same effect.
In psychological dependence, the user believes that he or she needs the drug to function well and maintain a sense of well-being. Any drug can produce psychological dependence.
How do stimulants and depressants affect consciousness and what are the dangers associated with taking them, particularly alcohol.
Stimulants are drugs that increase the ability of the nervous system, partricularly the sympathetic division of the central nervous system.
Amphetamines are synthetic drugs such and Benzedrine and Dexedrine. They help people stay awake and reduce appetite but are highly physically addictive.
Cocaine is highly addictive and can cause convulsions and death in some first-time users.
Nicotine is a mild stimulant and is very physically addictive.
Caffeine is the most commonly used stimulant, found in coffee, tea, chocolate and many sodas.
Barbiturates, also known as major tranquilizers, have a sedative effect and are used as sleeping pills.
The minor tranquilizer are benzodiazepines such as Valium or Xanx.
Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused depressant.
Alcohol can intereact with other drpressants.
Excessive use of alcohol can lead to alcoholism, health problems, loss of control and death.
What are the effects and dangers of using narcotics and hallucinogens, including marijuana?
Narcotics are pain-relieving drugs of the depressant class that are derived from the opium poppy.
Opium is the earliest form of this drug and is highly addictive because it directly stimulates receptor sites for endorphins. This causes natural production of endorphins to decrease.
Morphine is a more refined version of opium but is highly addictive.
Heroin was believed to be a purer form of morphine and, therefore, less addictive but in fact is even more powerfully addcitive.
Methadone has the ability to control the symptoms of heroin or morphine withdrawal without the euphoria, or "high," of heroin or morphine.
Halllucinogens are stimulants that alter the brain's interpretation of sensations, creating hallucinations. Three synthetically created hallucinogens are LSD, PCP and MDMA.
Three naturally occuring hallucinogens are mescaline, psilocybin and marijuana.
Marijuan is a mild hallucinogen, producing a mild europhia and feelings of relaxation in its users. Larger doses can lead to hallucinations and paranoia. It contains substancs that are carcinogenic and impairs learning and memroy.
How serious is the problem of sleep deprivation?
Sleep deprivation is a serious disorder responsbile for a large portion of traffic accidents and fatalities as well as increased stress, depression, anxiety, reduced productivity and risk-taking behavior.
Causes of sleep deprevation include sleep disorders such as apnea and narcolepsy, failure of people to go to sleep or stay alseep for an adequate amount of time, worrying and the influence of some drugs.
What does the term learning really mean?
Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice and is different from maturation that is genetically controlled.
How does classical conditioning first studied, and what are the important elements and characteristics of classical conditioning?
Pavlov accidentally discovered the phenomenon in which one stimulus can, through pairing with another stimulus, come to produce a similar response. He called this classical conditioning.
The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is the stimulus that is naturally occurring and produces the reflex, or involuntary unconditioned response (UCR). Both are called "unconditioned" because they are not learned.
The conditioned stimulus (CS) begins as a neutral stimulus, but when paired with an unconditioned stimulus eventually begins to elicit the reflex on its own. The reflexed response to the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR), and both stimulus and response are learned.
Pavlov paired a sound with the presentation of food to dogs and discovered several principles for classical conditioning: The neutral stimulus (NS) and the USC must be paired several times and the CS must precede the UCS by only a few seconds.
Other important aspects of classical conditioning include stimulus generalization, stimulus discrimination, extinction, spontaneous recovery and higher-order conditioning.
What is a conditioned emotional response, and how do cognitive psychologistics explain classical conditioning?
Watson was able to demonstrate that an emotional disorder called a phobia could be learned through classical conditioning by exposing a baby to a white rat and a loud noise, producing conditioned fear of the rat in the baby.
Conditioned taste aversions occur when an organsim becomes nauseated some time after eating a certain food, which then becomes aversive to the oganism.
Some kinds of conditioned responses are more easly learned than others because of biological preparedness.
Pavlov believed the the NS became a substitute for the UCS through association of time.
The cognitive perspective asserts that the CS has to provide some kind of information or expectancy about the coming of the UCS in order for the conditioning to occur.
How does operant conditioning occur, and what were the contributions of Thorndike and Skinner?
Thorndike developed the Law of Effect: A resonse followed by a pleasurable consequence will be repeated, but a response followed by an unpleasant consequence will not be repeated.
B.F. Skinner named the learning of voluntary responses operant conditioning because voluntary responses are what we use to operate in the world around us.
What are the important concepts in operant conditioning?
Skinner developed the concept of reinforcement, the process of strengthening a response by following it with a pleasurable, rewarding consequence.
A primary reinforcer is something such as food or water that satisfies a basic, natural drive, whereas a secondary reinforcer is something that becomes reinforcing only after being paired with a primary reinforcer.
In positive reinforcement, a response is followed by the presentation of a spleasurable stimulus, whereas in negative reinforcement, a response is followed by the removal or avoidnace of an unpleasant stimulus.
Shaping is the reinforcement of successive approximations to some final goal, allowing behavior to be molded from simple behavior already present in the organsim.
Extinction, generalization and discrimination, and spontaneous recovery also occur in operant conditioning.
What are some of the problems with using punishment?
Punishment is any event or stimulus that, when following a resonse, makes that response less likely to happen again.
In punishment by application, a response is followed by the application or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus, such as a spanking.
In punishment by removal, a response is followed by the removal of some pleasurable stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy for misbehavior.
A person who uses aggressive punishment, such as spanking, can act as a model for aggressive behavior. This will increase aggressive behavior in the one being punished, which is an undesirable response.
Punishment of both kinds normally has only a temporary effect on behavior.
Punishment can be made more effective by making it immediate and consistent and by pairing punishment of the undesirable behavior with reinforcementof the desirable one.
What are the schedules of reinforcement?
Continuous reinforcement occurs when each and every correct response is followed by a reinforcer.
Partial reinforcement, in which only some correct responses are followed by reinforcement. This is much more resistant to extinction. This is called the partial reinforcement effect.
In a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement, a certain number of responses is required before reinforcement is given.
In a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement, a varying number of responses is required to obtain reinforcement.
In a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement, at least one correct response must be made within a set interval of time to obtain reinforcement.
In a variable interval schedule of reinforcement, a reinfocement follows the first correct response made after an interval of time that changes for each reinforcement opportunity.
How do operant stimuli control behavior, and what kind of behavior is resistant to operant conditioning?
Discriminative stimuli are cues, such as a flashing light on a police car or a sign on a door that says "Open", that provide information about what response to make in order to obtain reinforcement.
Bioligical Constrraints on Operant Conditioning.
Instinctive behavior in aniamls is resistant to conditioning or modification. Although an animal may change its behavor at first through conditioning, the behavior will revert to the instinctual pattern in the process called instictive drift.
What is behavior modification, and how can behavioral techniques be used to modify involuntary biological responses?
Operant conditioning can be used in may settings on both animals and people to change, or modify, behavior. This use is termed behavior modification and includes the use of reinforcement and shaping to alter behavior.
Token economies are a type of behavior modification in which secondary reinforcers, or tokens, are used.
Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is the modern version of behavior modification and makes use of shaping by breaking desired behavior down into discrete steps.
Neurofeedback is a modified version of biofeedback in wich the person is connected to an electroencephalograph, a machine that recoreds the brain's electrical activity.
How does latent learning, learned helplessness, and insight relate to cognitive learning theory?
Cognitive learning theory states that learning requires cognition, or the influence of an organism's thought process.
Tolman found tht rats that were allowed to wander in a maze but were not reinofrced still showed evidence of having learning the maze once reinfocement became possible. He termed this hidden learning latent learning , a form of cognitive learning.
Seligman found that dogs that had been placed in an inescapable situation failed to try to escape when it became possible to do so, remaining in the painful situation as if helpless to leave. Seligman called this phenomenon learned helplessness and found parallels between learned helplessness and depression.
Kohler found evidence of insith, the usdden perception of the relationships among elements of a problem, in chimpanzees.
What occurs in observational learning, including findings from Bandura's classic Bobo doll study and the four elements of oberrvational learning?
Observational learning is learning through watching others perform or model, certain actions.
Bandur's famous Bob doll epeiment demonstrated that young children will imitate the aggressive actions of a model even when there is no reinforcement for doing so.
Bandur determined that four elements needed to be present for observational learning to occur: attention, memory, imitation and motiviation.
What is a real-world example of the use of conditioning?
Writer Karawynn Long used shaping, reinforcement and classical conditioning to train her cat to use the toilet in her bathroom insted of a litter box.
What are the three processes of memory and the diffrerent models of how memory works?
Memory can be defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters it as it storeds it way, and then retreives the information from storage.
The three processes are encoding, storage and retrieval.
In the levels-of-processing model of memory, information that gets more deeply processed is more likely to be remembered.
In the parallel distributed processing model of memory, information is simultaneously stored across an interconnected neural network that stretches across the brain.
How does sensory memory work?
Iconic memory is the visual sensory memory, in which an afterimage or icon will be held in neural form for about one-fourth to one-half second.
Echoic memory is the auditory form of sensory memory and takes the form of an echo that lasts up to 4 seconds.
What is short-term memory, and how does it different from working memory?
Short-term memory is where information is held while it is conscious and being used. It holds about seven plus or minus two chunks of information and lasts about 30 seconds without rehearsal.
STM can be lost through failure to rehearse, decay, interference by similar information and the intrusion of new inforamtion into the STM system, which pushes older information out.
How is long-term memory different from other types of memory?
Long-term memory is the system in which memories that are to be kept more or less permanently are stored and is unlimited in capacity and relatively permanent in duration.
Information that is more deeply processed, or processed accordinging to meaning, will be retained and retrieved more efficiently.
What are the various types of long-term memory, and how is information stored in long-term memory organized?
Procedural memories are memories for skills, habits and conditioned responsed. Declarative memories are memories for general facts and personal experiences and include both semantic memories and episodic memories.
Implicit memories are difficult to bring into conscious awareness, whereas explicit memories are those that a person is aware of prossessing.
LTM is organized in the form of semantic networks, or nodes of related information spreading out from a central piece of knowledge.
What kinds of cues helps people remember?
Retrieval cues are words, meanings, sounds and other stimuli that are encoded at the same time as the new memory.
Encoding specificity occurs when physical surrounds become encoded as retrieval cues for specific memories.
State-dependent learning occurs when physiological or psychoogical states become encoded as retreival cues for memories formed while in those state.
How do the retieval processes of recall and recognition differe, and how reliable are our memories of events?
Recall is a type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retieved must be "pulled" out of the memory with few or no cues, whereas recognition involves matching information with stored images or facts.
The serial position effect, or primary or recency effect, occurs when the first items and the last times in a list of information are recalled more efficiently than items in the middle of the list.
Elizabeth Loftus and Eyewitnesses.
Loftus and others have found that people constantly update and revise their memories of events. Part of this revision may include adding information acquired later to a previous memory. That later information may also be in error, further contaminating the earlier emmory.
Automatic encloding of some kinds of information requires very little effort to place information into long-term memory.
Memory for particularly emotional or traumatic events can lead to the formation of flashbulb memories, memories that seem as vivid and detailed as if the person were looking at a snapshot of the event but that are no more accurate than any other memories.
How are long-term memories formed, and what kinds of problems do people experience as a result?
Memories are reconstructed from the various bits and pieces of information that have been stored away in different places at the time of encoding in a process called constructive processing.
Hindsight bias occurs when people falsely believe that they knew the outcome of some event because they have included knowledge of the event's true outcome into their memories of the event itself.
The misinformation effect refers to the tendency of people who are asked misleading questions or given misleading information to incorporate that information into their memories for a particular event.
What is false memory syndrome?
Rather than improving memory retrieval, hypnosis makes the creation of false memories more likely.
False memory syndrome is the creation of false or inaccurate memories through suggestion, especially while hypnotized.
Pezdek and colleagues assert that false memories are more likely to be formed for plausible false events than for implausible ones.
Why do we forget?
Ebbinghaus found that information is mostly lost within 1 hour after learning and then gradually fades away. This is known as the curve of forgetting.
Some "forgetting" is actually a failure to encode information.
Memory trace decay theory assumes the presence of a physical memory trace that decays with disuse over time.
Forgetting in LTM is most likely due to proactive or retroactive interference.
The Physical Aspects of Memory
Evidence suggests that procedural memories are stored in the cerebellum, whereas short-term memories are stored in the prefrontal and temporal lobes of the cortex.
Semantic and episodic memories may be stored in the frontal and temporal lobes as well but in different locations than short-term memory, whereas memory for fear of objects is most likley stored in the amygdala.
How and where are memories formed in the brain?
Consolidation consists of the physical changes in neurons that take place during the formation of a memory.
The hippocampus appears to be responsible for the storage of new long-term memories. If it is removed, the ability to store anything new is completely lost.
How does amnesia occur and what is Alzheimer's disease?
In retorgrade amnesia, memory for the past (prior to the injury) is lost, which can be a loss of only minutes or a loss of several years.
ECT, or electroconvulsive therapy, can disrupt consdolidation and cause retrograde amnesisa.
In anterograde amnesia, memory for anything new becomes impossible, although old memories may still be retrievable.
Most people cannot remember events that occured before age 2 or 3, this is called infantile amnesia and is most likely due to the implicit nautre of infant memory.
The primary memory difficulty in Alzheimer's is anterograde amnesia, altough retrograde amneisa can also occur as the disease progresses.
There are various drugs in use or in development for use in slowing or stopping the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
How People Think.
Thinking (cognition) is mental activity that occurs in the brain when information is being organized, stored, communicated and processed.
How are mental images and concepts involved in the process of thinking?
Mental images represent objects or events and have a picture-like quality.
Concepts are ideas that represent a class or category of events, objects or activities.
Prototypes are examples of a concept that more closely match the defining characteristics of that concept.
What are the methods people use to solve problems and make decisions, and can a machine be made to think like a person?
Problem solving consists of thinking and behaving in certain ways to reach a goal.
Mechanical solutions include trial-and-error learning and rote solutions.
Algorithms are a type of rote solution in which one follows step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems.
A heuristic or "rule of thumb" is a strategy that narrows down the possible solutions for a problem.
Insight is the sudden perception of a solution to a problem.
Artificial intelligence refers to the attempt to create a machine that thinks like a human being.
Althought some computers have been designed that can play chess and perform in similar ways to a human, the true flexibility of human thought processes has yet to be developed in a machine.
Why does problem solving sometimes fail, and what is meant by creative thinking?
Functional fixedness is the tendency to perceive objects as having only the use for which they were originally intended and, therefore, failing to see them as possible tools for solving other problems.
Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for evidence that confirms one's beliefs, ignoring any evidence to the contrary.
Divergent thinking involves coming up with as many different answers as possible. This is a kind of creativity (combining ideas or behavior in new ways).
Creative people are usually good at mental imagery and have knowledge on a wide range of topics, are unafraid to be different, value their independence and are often unconventional in their work but not in other areas.
How do psychologists define intelligence, and how do various theories of intelligence differ?
Intelligence is the ability to understand the world, think rationally or logically, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges or problems.
Spearman proposed general intelligence, or g factor, as the ability to reason and solve problems, whereas specific intelligence, or s factor, includes task-specific abilities in certain areas such as music, business or art.
Gardner proposed nine different types of intelligence, ranging from verbal, linguistic and mathematical to interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence.
Sternberg proposed three types of intelligence, analytical, creative and practical.
Emotional intelligence is viewed as a powerful infludcne on success in life.
How is intelligence measured and how are intelligence tests constructed?
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test yields an IQ score that was once determined by dividing the mental age of the person by the chronological age and multiplying that quotient by 100 but now inolves comparing a person's score to a standardized norm.
The Wchsler Intelligence Tests yield a verbal score and a performance score as well as an overall score of intelligence.
Standardization, validity and reliability are all important factors in the construction of an intelligence trest.
Deviation IQs are based on the nornal curve, defining different levels of intelligence based on the deviation of scores from a common mean.
IQ tests are often criticized for being culturally biased.
What is mental retardation and what are its causes?
Mental retardation or developmental delay is a condition in which IQ falls below 70 and adpative behavior is severely deficient for a person of a particular chronological age.
The four levels of delay are mild (55-70 IQ), moderate (40-55 IQ), severe (25-45 IQ) and profound (below 25 IQ).
Causes of developmental delay include deprived environments as well as chromosome and genetic disorders and dietary deficiencies.
Terman conducted a longitudinal study that demonstrated that gifted children grow up to be successful adults for the most part.
Terman's study has been criticized for a lack of objectivity beause Terman became too involved in the lives of several of his participants, even to the point of intervening on their behalf.
What is the influence of heredity and environment on the development of intelligence?
Stronger correlations are found between IQ scores as genetic relatedness increases. Heritability of IQ is estimated at 0.50.
In 1994, Hernstein and Murray published The Bell Curve in which they made widely criticized claims about the heritability of intelligence.
How is language defined and what are its different elements and structure?
Language is a system for combining symbols so that an infinite number of meaningful statements can be created and communicated to others.
Grammar is the system of rules by which language is governed and includes the rules for using phonemes, morphemes and syntax. Pragmatics refers to practical apsects of languge.
Does language influence the way people think, and are animals capable of learning language?
Sapir and Whorf originally proposed that language controls and helps the development of thought processes and concepts, an idea that is known as linguistics relativity hypothesis.
Other reseachers have found evidence that concpets are universal and directly influence the development of language, called the congnitive universalism viewpoint.
Studies with chimpanzees, parrots and dolphins have been somewhat successful in demonstrating that aniamsl can devlope a bais kind of language, including some abrsract ideas.
Contorversy exists over the lack of evidence that animals can learn syntax, which some feel means that animals are not truly learning and using language.
What are some ways to improve thinking?
Mental activity that requires creativity and the use of memory abilities, such as working crossword puzzles and reading books, can help to keep the brain fit.
What are some of the special research methods used to study development?
Three special research methods used in developmental research are the longitudinal design, the cross-section design, and the cross-sequential design.
What is the relationship between heredity and environment factors in determining development?
Behaviorial genetics is a field investigating the relative condtributions to development of heredity (nature) and enviornment (nurture). Most developmental psychologists agree that development is a product of an interaction between nature and nurture.
How do chromosomes, genes and DNA determine a person's characteristics or disorders, and what causes multiple births?
Dominant genes control the expression of a trait, whereas recessive gene traits are only expressed when paired with another recessive gene for the same trait. Almost all traits are the result of combination of genes working together in a process called polygenic inheritance.
Conjoined twins Abby and Brittany Hensel are relatively healthy, well adjusted and participate fully in many normal activities for young people of their age.
Chromosome disorders include Down Syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome and Turner's syndrome, whereas genetic disorders include PKU, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia and Tay-Sachs disease.
The fertilized egg cell is called a zygote and divides into many cells, eventually forming a baby.
Monozygotic twins are formed when the zygote splits into two spearate masses of cells, each of which will develope into a baby identical to the other . When the two masses do not fully separate, conjoined twins occur.
Dizygotic twins are formed when the mother's body releases multiple eggs and at least two are fertilized, or when another ovulation occurs even though the mother has already become pregnant.
What happens during the germinal, embyronic and fetal periods of pregnancy and what are some hazards in prenatal development?
The germinal period is the first two weeks of pregnancy in which the dividing mass of cells (blastocyst) moves down the fallopian tube into the uterus.
The embryonic period begins at two weeks after conception and ends in eight weeks. The vital organs and structures of the baby form during this period, making it a critical one for teratogens to adversely affect the development of those organs and structures.
The fetal period is from the beginning of the ninth week until the bird of the baby. During the fetal period, tremendous growth occurs, length and weight increase and organs continue to become fully functional.
What kind of physical changes take place in infancy and childhood?
Four critical areas of adjustment for the newborn are respiration, digestion, circulation and temperature regulation.
Infanct are born with reflexes that help the infant survive until more complex learning is possible. These reflexes include sucking, rooting, Moro (startle), grasping and Babinski.
The senses, except for vision, are fairly well developed at birth. Vision is blurry and lacking in full color perspective until about 6 months of age. Gross and fine motor skills develop at a fast page during infancy and early childhood.
Immunizations are far less dangerous that the disease they are designed to prevent and are one of the most effective weapons in the fight against infection diseases.
What are two ways of looking at cognitive development, and how does language develop?
Piaget's stages include the sensorimotor stage of sensory and physical ineraction with the world, preoperational thought in which language becomes a tool of exploration, concrete operations in which logical thought becomes possible and formal operations in which abstract concepts are understood and hypothetical thinking develops.
Vygotsky believed that children learn best when being helped by a more highly skilled peer or adult in a process called scaffolding. The zone of proximal deveopment is the difference between the mental age of tasks the child perfomrs without help and those the child can perform with help.
The stages of language development are cooing, babbling, one-word speech (holophrases), and telegraphic speech. Although some language is learned through imitation and reinforcement, infants may possess a languge acquisition device that governs the learning of language during infanncy and early childhood.
How do infants and children develop personalities and form relationships with others, and what are Erikson's stages of psychosocial development for children?
The three basic infant temperaments are easy (regular, adaptable and happy), difficult (irregular, nonadaptable and irritable) and slow to warm up (need to adjust gradually to change).
The four types of attachment are secure, avoidant (unattached), ambivalent (insecurely attached) and disorganized-disoriented (insecurtly attached and sometimes abused or neglected).
In trust versus mistrust, the infant must gain a sense of predictability and trust in caregivers or risk developing a mistrustful nature; in autonomy versus shame and doubt the toddle needs to become physically independent.
In initatiave versus guilt the preschool child is developing emotional and psychological independence; in industry versus inferiority school age children are gaining competence and developing self-esteem.
Harlow's classic research with infant Rhesus monkeys demonstrated the importance of contact comfort in the attachment process, contradict the earlier view that attachment was merely a function of associating the mother with the delivery of food.
Adolescence is the period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties during which physical development reaches completion.
What the physical, cognitive and personality changes that ocur in adolescence, including concepts of morality and Erikson's search for identity?
Puberty is a period of about four years during which the sexual organs and systems fully mature and during which secondary sex characteristics such a body hair, breasts, menstruation, deepening voices and the growth spurt occur.
Adolescents engage in two kinds of egocentric thinking called the imaginary audience and the personal fable.
Kohlberg proposed three levels of moral development; preconventional morality, conventional morality and postconventionial morality.
In Erikson's identity verus role confusion crisis the job of the adolescent is to achieve a consistent sense of self from among all the roles, values and futures open to him or her.
What are the physical, cognitive and personality changes that occur during adulthood and aging, including Erikson's last three psychosocial stages, and patterns of parenting?
Adulthood begins in the early twenties and ends with death in old age. It can be divided into young adulthood, middle adulthood and late adulthood.
The twenties are the peak of physical health; in the thirties the signs of aging become more visible, and in the forties visual problems may occur, weight may increase, strength may decrease and height begins to decrease.
Women experience a physical decline in the reproductive system called climacteric, ending at about age 50 with menopause, when a woman's estrogen levels are at zero and her repdouctive capabilties are at a end. Men go through andropause, a less dramatic change in testosterone and other male hormones, beginning in the forties.
Many health problems such as high blood pressure, skin cancers and arthritis begin in middle age, with the most common causes of death in middle age being heart disease, cancer and stroke.
Reaction times slow down, but intelligence and memory remain relatively stable.
Erikson's crisis of young adulthood is intimacy versus isolation, in which the young adult must establish an intimate relationship, usually with a mate.
The crisis of middle adulthood is generativity versus stagnation, in which the task of the middle-aged adult is to help the next generation through its crisis, either by parently, mentoring or a career that leaves some legacy to the next generation.
Baumrind proposed three parently styles; auttorization (rigid and uncompromising), authoritative (consistent and strict but warm and flexible), and permissive (either indifferent and unconcenred with the daily acitvities of the child or indulgent and unwilling to set limits on the child).
Erikson's final crisis is integrity versus despair, in which an older adult must come to terms with mortality.
How doe psychologists explain why aging occurs, and what are the stages of death and dying?
Research strongly indicates that remaining active and involved results in the most positive adjustment to aging.
The cellular clock theory is based on the idea that cells only have so many times that they can reproduce; once that limit is reached, damaged cells beging to accumulate.
The wear-and-tear theory of physical aging states that as time goes by, repeated use and abuse of the body's tissues cause it to be unable to repair all the damage.
The free radical theory states that oxygen molecules with an unstable electron move around the cell, damaging cell structures as they go.
The five stages of reaciton to death and dying are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance.
How does attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder affect adults?
Many children with ADHD grow up to be adults with ADHD, affecting their work, relationships and emotional well-being. ADHD in adults can be treated with medication and/or therapy.