Psychology Definitions

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Author:
Toty
ID:
15900
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Psychology Definitions
Updated:
2010-04-23 20:58:32
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Chapter 13
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  1. stress
    a negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as taxing or exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope.
  2. health psychology
    the branch of psychology that studies how biological, behavioral, and social factors influence health, illness, medical treatment, and health-related behaviors.
  3. biopsychosocial model
    the belief that physical health and illness are determined by the complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors.
  4. stressors
    events or situations that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging.
  5. daily hassles
    everyday minor events that annoy and upset people.
  6. conflict
    a situation in which a person feels pulled between two or more opposing desires, motives, or goals.
  7. acculturative stress
    the stress that results from the pressure of adapting to a new culture.
  8. fight or flight response
    a rapidly occurring chain of internal physical reactions that prepare people either to fight or take flight from an immediate threat.
  9. catecholamines
    hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that cause rapid physiological arousal; include adrenaline and noradrenaline.
  10. general adaptation syndrome
    Selye's term for the three-stage progression of physical changes that occur when an organism is exposed to intense and prolonged stress. The three stages are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
  11. corticosteroids
    hormones released by the adrenal cortex that play a key role in the body's response to long-term stressors.
  12. immune system
    body system that produces specialized white blood cells that protect the body from viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells.
  13. lymphocytes
    specialized white blood cells that are responsible for immune defenses.
  14. psychoneuroimmunology
    an interdisciplinary field that studies the interconnections among psychological processes, nervous and endocrine system functions, and the immune system.
  15. optimistic explanatory style
    accounting for negative events or situations with external, unstable, and specific explanations.
  16. pessimistic explanatory style
    accounting for negative events or situations with internal, stable, and global expectations.
  17. Type A behavior pattern
    a behavioral and emotional style characterized by a sense of time urgency, hostility, and competitiveness.
  18. social support
    the resources provided by other people in times of need.
  19. coping
    behavioral and cognitive responses used to deal with stressors; involves our effeorts to change circumstances, to our interpretation of circumstances, to make them more favorable and less threatening.
  20. problem-focused coping
    coping efforts primarily aimed at directly changing or managing a threatening or harmful stressor.
  21. emotion-focused coping
    coping efforts primarily aimed at relieving or regulating the emotional impact of a stressful situation.

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