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COMPOSED OF LYMPHATIC VESSELS AND LYMPHATIC ORGANS
FUNCTION OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
TRANSPORT MATERIALS THAT LEAKED OUT OF BLOOD CAPILLARIES BACK INTO THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. DEFENDS HTE BODY AGAINST INFECTION
SIMILAR IN THE STUCTURE WITH VEINS. LARGER VESSELS HAVE VALVES AND MOVEMENT AIDED BY SAME FACTORS THA MOVE BLOOD THROUGH VEINS; VASOCONSTRICTION, RESPIRATORY MOVEMENT AND SKELETAL MUSCLE CONSTRACTION.
SIMILAR TO BLOOD CAPILLARIES BUT CLOSED ENDED AND LOCATED NEAR BLOOD CAPILLARIES.
LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES LOCATED IN THE VILUS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE THAT CARRY AWAY FAT MOLECULES. LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES MERG TO FORM LARGER LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
MERG TO FORM LARGER LYMPHATIC VESSELS
LARGER LYMPHATIC VESSELS THAT ARE NAMES ACCORDING TO THEIR LOCATION: THESE DRAIN LYMPH FROM VARIOUS REGIONS OF THE BODY
THE LARGEST OF THE LYMPHATIC VESSELS. THE LARGEST IS THE RIGHT LYMPHATIC DUCT. THE THORACIC DUCT IN THE SMALLEST OF THE TWO DUCTS. THE DUCT EMPTY INTO THE SUBCLAVIAN VEIN
LYMPHATIC CAPILLARIES--LYMPHATIC VESSELS--LYMPH NODE-- LARGER LYMPHATIC VESSEL---LYMPHATIC TRUNK--LYMPHATIC DUCT--SUBCLAVIAN VEIN
TISSUE FLUID THAT'S INSIDE THE LYMPHATIC CAPILLARY. OSMATIC PRESSURE FORCES IN THE INTERSTITAL FLUID INTO THE LYMPHIC CAPILLARIES. ANY OBSTRUCTION WITH THE FLOW OF LYMPH RESULTS IN EDEMA
KIDNEY SHAPED AND LOCATED ON THE PATH OF THE LYMPHATIC VESSEL
CAPSULE (LYMPH NODE STRUCTURE)
FIBROUS CONNECTION TISSUE THAT SURROUND THE NODE. IT EXTENDS INWARDS TO DIVIDE THE NODE INTO NODULES. NODULES CONTAIN LYMPHOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES
HILUS(LYMPH NODE STRUCTURE)
INTENED REGION OF THE NODE THROUGH WHICH BLOOD VESSELS, NERVES AND EFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSEL PASSES THROUGH AFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSEL.
AFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSEL
LOCATED ON THE CONVEXT SIDE OF THE NODE NAD CARRIES LYMPH INTO THE LYMPH NODE
CORTEX(LYMPH NODE STRUCTURE)
OUTER TISSUE OF THE NODE.
MEDULLA(LYMPH NODE STRUCTURE)
INNER TISSUE OF THE NODE
SINUS(LYMPH NODE STRUCTURE)
SPACES WITHIN THE TISSUE THAT CONTAIN LYMPH
LOCATION OF LYMPH NODES
ALONG THE PATH OF THE LARGER LYMPHATIC VESSELS: AUXILLARY REGION, INGUINAL REGION, CERVICAL REGION, THORACIC LUMBER REGION.
FUNCTIONS OF LYMPH NODE
FILTERS LYMPH AND ARE CENTERS OF LYPHOCYTE PRODUCTION
LOCATED BEHIND THE STERNUM. THEY ARE LARGER IN SIZE DURING INFANCY NAD EARLY CHILDHOOD. THEY SHRINK IN SIZE AS WE GET OLDER. THEY SECREAT A HORMONE CALLED THYMOSIN WHICH HELPS IN THE PRODUCTION OF T LYMPHOCYTES (T CELLS). THESE T CELLS LEAVE THE THYMUS TO PROVIDE IMMUNITY
RESEMBLE LYMPH NODE BUT LARGER. THE SPLEEN IS THE LARGEST OF THE LYMPHATIC ORGANS. STRUCTURE IS SIMILAR TO LYMPH NODES. SPLEEN FILTERS BLOOD AND REMOVES DAMAGED BLOOD CELLS. SPLEEN ALSO PRODUCE BLOOD CELLS BEFORE BIRTH.
OTHER LYMPHATIC ORGANS
ADENOIDS, PHARYNGEAL TONSILS AND PEYES PATCHES, LOCATED ON THE ABDOMINAL REGION
BODY DEFENSES AGAINST INFECTION
PATHOGENS: DISEASE CAUSING AGENTS. EXAMPLES : BACTERIA, VIRUS, PROTOZOA, FUNGI AND PARASITES
2 LINES OF DEFENSE
NON-SPECIFIC DEFENSES AND SPECIFIC DEFENSES
GUARD AGAINST MANY TYPES OF ORGANISMS. THEY PROVIDE GENERAL IMMUNITY TO VARIOUS PATHOGENS. THEY WORK TOGETHER TO PROTECT THE BODY FROM INFECTION
GUARD AGAINST VERY SPECIFIC PATHOGEN. CARRIED OUT BY LYMPHOCYTES THAT RECOGNIZE A SPECIFIC INVADER.
NON-SPECIFIC (GENERAL) DEFENSES
SPECIES RESISTANCE, MECHANICAL BARRIERS,INFLAMMATION,PHAGOCYTOSIS,ANTIGENS,HAPTENS
A SPECIES MAY BE RESISTANT TO A DISEASE THAT OTHER SPECIES ARE AFFECTED, BUT MAY BE AFFECTED BY A DISEASE THAT MAY NOT AFTER OTHER SPECIES
UNBROKEN SKIN,MUCOUS MEMBRANE: PREVENT ENTRY OF PATHOGENS
TISSUE RESPONSE TO A PATHOGEN. SIGNS: SWELLIN,REDNESS,HEAT AND PAIN
MOST ACTIVE PHAGOCYTES: NEUTROPHILS,MONOCYTES,MACROPHAGES. THEY REMOVE PATHOGENS FROM THE BODY
PROTEINS AND OTHER LARGE MOLECULES THAT BRING ABOUT AN IMMUNE RESPONSE. A,B AND D ANTIGENS ARE EXAMPLES
SMALL MOLECULES THAT ARE NOT ANTIGENIC BY THEMSELVES. WHEN THEY COMBINE WITH OTHER MOLECULES THEY BECOME ANTIGENIC. IN BLOOD, THE PRESCENCE OF ANTIGENS STIMULATE THE PRODUCTION OF ANTIBODIES
- BONE MARROW: AFTER BIRTH
- SPLEEN, YOLK SAC NAD LIVER BEFORE BIRTH
LYMPHOCYTES THAT ARE PROCESSED IN THE THYMUS. THEY PROVIDE CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY. THEY REACT DIRECTLY WITH PATHOGENS.
LYMPHOCYTES PROCESSED IN THE BONE MARROW. THEY REACT INDIRECTLY TO PATHOGENS NAD BRING ABOUT ANTIBODY MEDIATED IMMUNITY. T CELLS AND B CELLS REACT TOGETHER TO BRING IMMUNE RESPONSE
TYPES OF ANTIBODY: GAMDE
TYPES OF ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
NATURALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVE IMMUNITY, ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY,NATUALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY, ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY
NATURALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
DEVELOPS WHEN ONE DEVELOPS A DISEASE
ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED ACTIVIE IMMUNITY
DEVELOP WHEN ONE RECEIVES A VACCINE
ARTIFICIALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY
DEVELOPS WHEN ONE GETS A SHOT OF GAMMA GLOBULIN
NATURALLY ACQUIRED PASSIVE IMMUNITY
DEVELOPS WHEN A BABY RECEIVES THE IMMUNITY FROM THE MOTHER'S MILK OR THE PLACENTA
LASTS LONGER THAN PASSIVE IMMUNITY
- HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
- HIV is a virus.
- Some viruses, such as the ones that cause the common cold or the flu, stay in the body only for a few days.
- Some viruses, such as HIV, never go away.
- When a person becomes infected with HIV, that person becomes "HIV positive" and will always be HIV positive.
- Over time, HIV disease infects and kills white blood cells called CD4 lymphocytes (or "T cells") and can leave the body unable to fight off certain kinds of infections and cancers.
- AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
- caused by HIV.
- The names HIV and AIDS can be confusing because both terms describe the same disease.
- Think of AIDS as advanced HIV disease.
- A person with AIDS has an immune system so weakened by HIV that the person usually becomes sick from one of several opportunistic infections or cancers such as PCP (a type of pneumonia) or KS (Kaposi sarcoma), wasting syndrome (involuntary weight loss), memory impairment, or tuberculosis.
- If someone with HIV is diagnosed with one of these opportunistic infections (even if the CD4 count is above 200), he or she is said to have AIDS.
- AIDS usually takes time to develop from the time a person acquires HIV -- usually between 2 to 10 years or more.
CAUSES OF AIDS AND HIV
- In 1981, the first cases of severe immune system deterioration were recognized when several young men developed unusual infections and cancer.
- The new disease was later named "AIDS". At that time, no one knew what was causing the disease.
- Since then, science has shown that the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the cause of AIDS.
- We know this because people who become infected with the virus can develop AIDS, and medicines that act against the virus can prevent infected people from getting sick.
- As HIV infection progresses, it weakens a person's ability to fight off diseases.
- By attacking the immune system, the virus leaves people more susceptible to other diseases.
- When a person with HIV contracts one of several additional diseases, or when a person's immune system shows marked deterioration, that person is classified as having AIDS.
- Some individuals and groups have tried to push the false idea that AIDS is not caused by HIV.
- These claims can be really harmful. If people are led to believe that they do not need to reduce their risk of getting or spreading HIV, they could become infected or pass the virus to others.
- Also, if people with HIV think they do not need to get medical care or consider treatment, they could become very sick and develop AIDS
- Protecting yourself against HIV is about knowledge. Understanding how you get (and avoid getting) HIV, and knowing yourself and your partner (or partners), are key to protecting yourself against HIV.
- Many people who "know better" engage in risky activities.
- The reasons for this are numerous and normal: you could be afraid to insist that your partner use a condom; you could make false assumptions about partners (they seem too young, old, healthy-looking, or nice to be HIV positive); you might be a drinker or recreational drug user who does things while under the influence that you wouldn't otherwise consider. T
- he hardest part of protecting yourself can be learning how to apply what you know to your life and behavior.
- Be safe and
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