Card Set Information
special techniques near add patient types integrating findings
How much vergence is induced at 6m?
How much vergence is induced at 4m?
Why is there a need for relaxation of accomodation
consulation anxiety in some px
induced vergence at 6m
What is the range of testing with the HIC?
: normal chart
: 2 vert fan charts
: isolate 6/9 letters
Chevron=tips, blocks=wings and tips
used for high cyl and keratoconous
long pinhole- blur circles contracted
fog, rotate for bv, reduce fog, rotate 90, reduce for bv deduce cyl
how do cyclopegics work?
paralyse ciliary muscle and iris constrictor papillae
When would you use cyclopegics?
px reports ast but no apparent rx
unstable endpts in rx/ret
low accom amp
obj more positive than sub
how much deviation of accom is ok before worrying?
20% from expected amp
cyclo results- what action should be taken when +0.50, +1.00?
2. psuedomyope/ latent hyp
What is the average result of cyclo? hyp/myp?
what are some problems with cyclo?
incon to px
lens prescribed cant be worn for long
Tentative add at 20, 44, 60 yo?
10, 4, 0 loss of 1D every 4 years
For prolonged viewing how much amp is used?
What lighting is used for FCC and UFCC and why?
room light/ no additional light- increase depth of focus= less blur
this is how they would read with at home
Procedure for testing a presb patient
: unaided VA/ habitual VA, habitual near VA, amp of accom
: refine sphere, cyl, +1.00D test, balance
: UFCC, FCC, NRA, PRA, linear range of clear vision
At what cyl does spectacle effectivity change for near vision?
Near cyl method?
reduced snellen chart+ JCC- clc retina- spher from FCC
What is an adequate fog for near JCC on 20yo?
what is UFCC?
balance accom for near without convergence
Value for UFCC in young adult?
established accom employed relative to testing distance (with convergence)
Value for FCC in young adult? why difference from UFCC?
convergence acting, less accom required
how much the px can relax their accom
elderly have none so no relaxing
NRA norms in young adult?
not +10 since that is monocular, cant get that much at 40cm
How much accom can exert
PRA norm in young adult?
in a pre-presbyopic px, where is nra/pra taken from?
in a presbyopic px, where is nra/pra taken from?
Linear range of clear vision?
carried out last
chart out then in
What caution should you take when prescribing a psuedomyope?
limit -ve lenses!
try an add instead! :)
review in 6 months
What clues are there to exposing a psuedomyope?
asthenopia more severe
intermittance distance blur
low amp accom fr age
more minus on subj/ret than normal
minus lenses dont provide much clarity
clinical history of anxiety
what risks are there when it comes to hyperopes?
strabismus/ amblyopia in children
what stage should you prescribe?
What is the problem with hyperopic children and ast
low a causes more asthenopia
larger a= px gives up trying
Should 0.50DC be prescribed?
old- yeah may need it
if sphere is rly huge
must be able to improve vision couple of letters
never ______ prescrbie cyl!
over, always lesser cyl value
what counts as anisometropia in hyp/myp/ast?
What considerations need to be amde for anisometropia?
correct dominant eye to best va
what is meant by the apparent early onset of pres?
latent hyp becoming manifset
only give px 'reading' glasses
do not over correct add
how to treat an amblyope?
: fully correct good eye
and mpmva amb eye
full rx BE goal in stages
Cutoff considerations for child age 1
Cutoff considerations for child age 3
Cutoff considerations for child age 5