GCSE Physics

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GCSE Physics
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2012-06-19 08:37:15
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  1. what is the name of the process of a solid turning into a liquid (1)
    melting
  2. the differences in properties between solid , liquid and gas states are due to the arangements of the particles within the material
    describe the arrangement of particles in a solid mterial (2)
    particles vibrating about fixed positions
  3. the differences in properties between solid , liquid and gas states are due to the arangements of the particles within the material
    what happens to the particles as the solid becomes a liquid (2)
    • any two from 
    • particles gain energy
    • vibrate so much that bonds are broken
    • particles are able to move freely around
  4. specific heat capacity is a measure of how much energy is needed to raise the temperature of a material by 1°C
    the table below shows the values of specific heat capacity for some liquids 
    water - 4200 J/Kg/°C
    parrafin - 2100 J/Kg/°C
    oil - 1970 J/Kg/°C
    describe how storage radiators are used to heat up a room (3)
    • uses electricity during night time , when rates are low
    • to heat up fluid inside radiator 
    • heat energy slowly relased into room as fluid cools down during the day time
  5. specific heat capacity is a measure of how much energy is needed to raise the temperature of a material by 1°Cthe table below shows the values of specific heat capacity for some liquids 
    water - 4200 J/Kg/°C
    parrafin - 2100 J/Kg/°C
    oil - 1970 J/Kg/°C
    explain the advanatges of using oil instead of water in storage radiators (1)
    oil has a lower specific heat capacity than water , so will take less energy to heat up to the same temperature
  6. explain how solar panels heat the water (2)
    • water is pumped through the pipes 
    • absorbing infrared radiation from the sun
  7. solar water heating usually needs to be topped up with heat from either electricity or a boiler
    explaim why (2)
    • any two from 
    • it is not always sunny enough
    • solar heating may not rise the temperature of water enough
    • hot water may be required at night time
  8. new houses are built to waste as little energy as possible . People in older houses can make large energy savings by installing insulation 
    variouis methods are used and can be compared by measuring U-values
    explain the term U value (2)
    • measure of how good an insulator is
    • low u value indicates low energy flow (i.e. good insulator)
  9. explain the term payback time (2)
    time taken to save as much money in annual energy costs as installation costs
  10. what are the disadvantages and advantages of using loft installation in an old house
    • advanatges - short payback time and cheap installation
    • disdvanatges - materials can be harmful (requiring care to install) and can increase damage from roof
  11. what are the disadvantages and advantages of using double glazing in an old house
    • advanatges - effective as glass is a good insulator , it also provides noise insulation 
    • disadvanatges - long pay back time , expensive
  12. what are the disadvantages and advantages of using cavity wall insulation in an old house
    • disadvanatges/advanatges  - relatively costly and medium payback times 
    • disadvantages - needs specialist installation
  13. explain how a vacuum flask affects infrared radiation to help keep liquids cool or hot  (2)
    • shiny inside surface reflects back into the flask to keep hot liquids hot 
    • shiny outside surface reflects back to surroundings keeping cold liquids cool
  14. explain why there are worries that global warming may increase further as ice melts in the arctic and antarctic (2)
    infrared radiation from the sun is absorbed more by the sea which is dark than the ice which is shiny white so lees is reflected back and more absorbed on the earths surface
  15. suggest why an infrared telescope would be placed on orbit around the earth and not on earth 
    the atmosphere absorbs radiation 
  16. explain why liquids evapourate most when it is warm (2)
    • the energy of particles in a liquid is higher when the liquid is warm 
    • so the particles have enough energy to break free
  17. explain why liquids evapourate most when it is windy (2)
    • still air near surface gets saturated
    • wind blows clear so more particles can enter unsaturated air
  18. explain why liquids evapourate most when the liquid is thinly spread (2)
    • larger surface area
    • so more particles at surface area to break free
  19. a burgular alarm uses a beam of infrared radiation that falls on a sensor . If a burgular interrupts the beam an alarm sounds . Why is infrared radiation used and not light or ultraviolet radiation
    the burgular would see light and UV would be dangerous 
  20. describe the changes to the pitch of sound heard by people on the platform as a train passes
    the pitch will be increased as the train approaches and decreased as it moves away 
  21. a light source is moving so that an observer sees the light red shifted what happens to the wavelength and frequency of the observed light
    The wavelength increases and frequency decreases 
  22. two go-karts are being driven along a race track at the same speed . Explain whether the drivers notice any change in the sound of : (a) their own go-kart (b) the other go kart
    • a. the drivers would notice no change because they are not moving relative to the go-kart 
    • b. the drivers would notice no change
    • because they are travelling at the same speed , so not moving relatively to each other 
  23. a satellite orbits the earth transmitting a beam of microwaves (a) describe how the frequency of the microwaves recieved by a dector changes as the satellite passes overhead (b) What is this effect called
    • a.the frequency increases as the satellite approaches and decreases as it moves away
    • b. doppler shift 
  24. explain how a driver of a moving cars hears a siren but can not hear the pitch of the sound changing
    1. there is no relative motion between the car and siren
  25. a laser beam is used to measure the speed of a car . The light is directed at the car and reflected back to a detector . How does the wavelength change if the car is (A) approaching the laser (B) travelling away from the laser
    • a. The wavelength decreases 
    • b. the wavelength increases  
  26. a laser beam is used to measure the speed of a car . The light is directed at the car and reflected back to a detector . The car is travelling towards the laser and it speeds up . what diffrence will this make to the wavelength of the light detected
    shift in wavelength will be greater 
  27. a laser beam is used to measure the speed of a car . The light is directed at the car and reflected back to a detector . The laser and detector are now driven at the same speed behind the first car . Explain whether there are any changes to the wavelength of the light recieved
    there will be no change in the wavelength because the observer is not moving relative to the source of sound ; they are still staying the same distance apart because they are travelling at the same sped 
  28. explain why the motion of a siren affects the pitch of the sound heard by a staionary observer . How can this be demonstrated in the science lab
    As the siren moves away from the observer the wavelength increases and the frequency decreases. As the speed of the waves has not changed, because the wavelength increases and the frequency decrease, the pitch of the sound has decreased. As the siren moves towards the observer the wavelength decreases and the frequency increases, so a higher pitch is heard. an experiment could be done in the laboratory such as whirling a small radio around on a piece of string 
  29. In doppler ultrasound scans of the heart , computers use the doppler effect to produce an image of the blood flow inside the heart . Ultrasound waves are sent towards the heart and are reflected back . Explain how the doppler effect can be used to give information about the speed and direction of the moving blood flow
    If blood is moving towards the ultrasound source , reflected ultrasound waves will have decreased wavelength and increased frequency ; in contrast ; if blood is moving away from the ultrasound source , reflected ultrasound waves will have increases wavelength and decreased frequency ; if the blood is moving faster there will be a larger shift in the frequency and wavelength 

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