Adrenergic Drugs

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Author:
blakegoodman08
ID:
159085
Filename:
Adrenergic Drugs
Updated:
2012-06-17 19:42:00
Tags:
USMLE Step Review Pharmacology Sympathetic Autonomic sANS Sympathomimetic Sympathoplegic alpha beta agonist adrenergic
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Description:
List of different sympathetic ANS agonist drugs and their effects
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  1. Name the 3 major classes of sANS agonists.
    • Direct Sympathomimetics
    • Indirect Sympathomimetics
    • Sympathoplegics 
  2. Name the 11 direct sympathomimetics, split into 3 classes (3, 1, 7).
    • Mixed Agonists: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine
    • Alpha Agonist: Phenylephrine
    • Beta Agonists: Dobutamine, Isoproterenol, Metaproterenol, Albuterol, Salmeterol, Terbutaline, Ritodrine
  3. Name the 4 indirect sympathomimetics.
    • Amphetamine
    • Ephedrine
    • Cocaine
    • Tyramine 
  4. Name the 2 sympathoplegics.
    • Clonidine
    • α-methyldopa
  5. Name the targets and actions of epinephrine.
    • α1α2β1β2 agonist, selective for β1β2 at low doses (βlow)
    • Used to reverse anaphylaxis, open angle glaucoma, asthma, and hypotension
  6. Name the targets and actions of norepinephrine.
    • α1α2 > β1
    • Used to reverse hypotension, but also decreases renal perfusion
  7. Name the targets and actions of dopamine.
    • D1 = D2 > β > α
    • Both inotropic and chronotropic
    • Used in hemostatic shock, theoretically increasing renal perfusion, and heart failure
  8. Name the targets and actions of phenylephrine.
    • α1 > α2
    • Used to stop emergent epistaxis, causes vasoconstriction, pupillary dilation, and nasal decongestion. 
  9. Name the targets and actions of dobutamine.
    • β1 > β2 ; inotropic and slightly chronotropic
    • Used to help reverse shock, treat heart failure, and in cardiac stress testing.
  10. Name the targets and actions of isoproterenol.
    • β1 = β2 (isolated to β)
    • No longer commonly used, but was used to treat AV block. 
  11. Name the targets and actions of the MAST drugs.
    • MAST = Metoproterenol, Albuterol, Salmeterol, Terbutaline
    • β2 >>> β1
    • Causes bronchiolar dilation, but can also raise HR at high doses
    • Meto and Albu are for acute asthma (Mortal Asthma)
    • Salme for long term (Sustained) asthma treatment
    • Terbutaline = Tocolytic
  12. Name the targets and actions of ritodrine.
    • Completely selective β2 agonist
    • Reduces premature uterine contractions (tocolytic). 
  13. Name the targets and actions of amphetamine. 
    • Indirect general α/β agonist, releases stored catecholamines.
    • Used in ADHD, narcolepsy, obesity, and Rx bridge in depression with antidepressants. 
  14. Name the targets and actions of ephedrine.
    • Indirect α/β agonist, releases stored catecholamines.
    • Used for nasal decongestion, urinary incontinence, and hypotension; taken off the market for weight loss (FenPhen).
  15. Name the targets and actions of cocaine.
    • Indirect α/β agonist, acts as reuptake inhibitor.
    • Causes vasoconstriction and local anesthesia (Na+ channel block).
  16. Name the targets and actions of tyramine.
    • Monoamine that releases stored catecholamines.
    • Found in aged foods (wine, cheeses) and contraindicated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, as it can cause a hypertensive crisis.
  17. Name the targets and actions of clonidine and α-methyldopa.
    • Centrally acting α2 agonist, decreasing central outflow.
    • Used in hypertension, especially with renal disease (does not decrease renal perfusion).
    • Clonidine is short acting and causes severe rebound effects.
    • α-methyldopa is safe to use in pregnancy (pre-eclampsia).

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