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- is one of the most abundant and widely distributed tissues in the body.
- Functions: binds together, supports, and strengthens our body tissues; protects and insulates our internal organs; compartmentalizes structures such as skeletal muscles; serves as the major transport system with in the body(blood and fluid connective tissue) is the primary location of stored energy; and is the main source of immune responses
- is the material located between its widely spaced cells.
- Structure: protein fibers and ground substance, the material between the cells and the fibers. It usually is secreted by the by the connective tissue cell and determines the tissue's qualities
-do not usually occur on body surfaces and are usually rich in blood
- Functions: supports and binds cells together, provides a medium for the exchange of materials, stores water, and actively influences cell functions
- Sturcture: contains water and polysaccarides
Fibers (extracellular matrix)
- Functions: provide strength and support and are the of three types: Collagen fibers- are found in large amounts in bone, tendons, and ligament
- Elastic fibers- composed of elastin, fibrillin, and other glycoproteins. They are found in skin, blood vessel walls and lungs
- Reticular fibres- composed of collagen and glycoprotein. are found around the fat cells, nerve fibres and skeletel and smooth muscle cells
Connective tissue cells: Fibroblasts
are large, flat cells with branching processes. They are present in several connective tissues, and usually are the most numerous. Fibroblasts migrate through the connective tissue, secreting the fibers and certain componenets of the ground substance of the extracellular matrix.
Connective tissue cells: Adipocytes
- also called fat cells or adipose cells, are connective tissue cells that store tryglycerids. They are found deep to the skin and around organs such as the heart and kidneys
- Function: store fat
Connective tissue cells: Mast cells
are abundant alongside the blood vessels that supply cinnective tissue. They produce histamine, a chemical that dilates small blood vessels as part of the inflammatory response, the body's reaction to injury or infection.
Function: produce histamine
Connective tissue cells: White Blood cells
are not found in significant numbers in normal connective tissue. However, in response to certain conditions they migrate from blood into connective tissues.
Function: migrate from blood in response to infection
Connective tissue cells: Macrophages
Function: perform phagocytosis
Connective tissue cells: Plasma cell
Function: secrete anitbodies
Embryonic and Mature connective tissue
embryonic is found in the embryo and fetus and mature is found in a new born baby
Mature connective tissue
- differentiates from mesenchyme. It is subdivided into several types:
- loose or dense connective tissues, cartilage, bone tissues and liquid connective tissue
Mature connective tissue: loose connective tissue
includes areolar, adipose and reticulare connective tissue
loose connective tissue: areolar connective tissue
consists of three types of fibers, several types of cells, and a semifluid ground substance. It is found in the subcutaneous layer, in mucus membranes and around blood vessels, nerves and body organs.
loose connective tissue: Adipose tissue
consists of adiposecytes which store triglycerids. It is found in the subcutaneous layer around organs and in yellow bone marrow. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat.
loose connective tissues: Reticular connective tissue
consists of reticular fibers and reticular cells and is found in the liver spleen, and lymphnodes.
Dense connective tissues
includes dense regular connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue and elastic connective tissue
Dense connective tissues: Dense regular
consists of parrelle bundels of collogen fibers and fibroblasts. It forms tendons most ligaments, and aponeuroses.
Dense connective tissues: Dense irregular
ususally consists of randomly arranged collagen fibers and a few fibroblasts. It is found in fasciae, the dermis of skin and membrane capsoles around organs.
Dense connective tissues: elastic connective tissues
consists of branching elastic fibers and fibroblasts. It is found in the walls of large arteries, lungs, trachia, and bronchial tubes
contains chondrocytes and has a rubber extracellular matrix (chondroitin sulfate) contianing collegen and elastic fibers.
consists of a gel like ground substance and appears bluish white in the body, it is found in the embryonic skeleton, at the ends of bones, in the nose, and in resperatory structures. It is flexible, and allows movement and provides support, and is usually surrounded by a perichondrium.
found in the pubic symphysis, intervertable discs, and menisci (cartillage paths) of the knee joint. It contains condrocytes scattered among clearly visable bundels of collagen fibres.
maintians the shape of organs such as the epiglottis of the larynx, auditory tubes, and external ear, contains chondrocytes located within a thread like network of elastic fibres and has a perichondrium.
Bone or osseous tissue
consists of an extracellular matrix of mineral salt and collagen fibres that contribute to the hardness of bone and osteocytes that are located in lacunae. It supports, protects, provides a surface area for muscle attachment, helps provide movement, stores minerals, and houses blood forming tissue.
is liquid connective tissue that consist of blood plasma and formed elements -- red blood cells, white blood cells, and platlettes. It's cells transport oxygen and carbon dioxide, carry on phagcytoces, participate in allergic reactions, provide immunity, and bring about blood clotting.
the extracellular fluid that flows in the lymphatic vessels, is also a liquid connective tissue. It is a clear fluid similar to blood plasma but with less protein.