Directional vs. Non-directional
Ho vs. Ha
: states which way the relationship should exist.
Example: Social assistance recipients will report greater depressive symptoms than employed single mothers.
This type of hypothesis is usually used when the researcher uses theory to form the basis of their study. Much is known about a concept or the topic of study.
states the relationship exists, but not the direction.
Example: Biophysical and psychosocial factors might influence recovery from cardiac surgery.
More objective and impartial than directional hypothesis. The researcher is not tied into a specific result.
- Statistical hypothesis, null hypothesis, or the Ho
- -means no relationship exists between the IV and the DV
- -if statistical evidence is found in the study, the Ho is rejected
- Research hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, or the Ha -a statement about the expected relationship of the variables and indicates expected outcome of the study and is either directional or nondirectional, hypothesis is supported
- -if statististical evidence is found in a study the research hypothesis is accepted
- If the p is low, the Ho must go
- <0.05: a low p value indicates a statistically significant test result