When dealing with contributory negligence and comparative fault, the D has the BoP to show what?
that P fell below the relevant standard of care and that his failure was the cause-in-fact and proximate cause of P's damage by PoE
What is the P's conduct measured by when dealing with contributory negligence and comparative fault?
P acted unreasonably as based by RPP
What is the legal effect of the P's contributory negligence in a contributory negligence jurisdiction?
absolute bar from recovery regardless of the amount of fault belonging to the P
What is the legal effect of the P's contributory negligence in a pure comparative fault jurisdiction?
P is allowed to recover regardless of how much at fault he is with the recovery reduced by the amount of his own fault
In a pure comparative fault jurisdiction, amy the P still recover even if he is more at fault than the D?
What is the legal effect of the P's contributory negligence in a modified comparative fault jurisdiction?
where the P is more at fault or as much at fault as D then barred from recovery
In which jurisdiction will the last clear chance doctrine apply?
contributory negligence jurisdiction
What is the last clear chance doctrine?
if the D negligence occurs after the P's then the P is entitled to full recovery
What is the focus on in the last clear chance doctrine?
the time period after the P has engaged in contrib. negligence
When is the D said to have had the last clear chance to avoid harm?
when the injury to the P could still have been avoided thru a subsequent exercise of due care by the D
Does J&S liability survive in comparative fault jurisdictions?
yes - subtract the P fault then hold the other D's liable for the remainder J&S
When does express AoR arise?
when the P has, by written or oral words, experssly relieved the D of his obligation to act non-negligently toward P
Must AoR waivers be clear, express, and not against public policy?
In what torts do express AoR waivers apply?
When is an AoR express waiver void against public policy?
when dealing with necessity
Is it possible for a P to impliedly AoR?
yes under very limited circumstances
P is barred from recovery or recovery is reduced under the AoR doctrine if the D establishes what?
(1) P knew the risk
(2) P understood the risk
(3) P confronted the risk voluntarily
Is AoR a subjective or objective focus?
Is contributory negligence a subjective or objective focus?
Is comparative fault a subjective or objective focus?
What is the rule for professional rescuers also known as the firefighter rule?
where the P is a professional rescuer and is injured doing his job then unable to recover in negligence against the person that created the need for her to do his job
What is the public policy reason behind the firefighter rule?
part of her job involves putting herself at risk of other ppl's negligence and we don't want to dissuade ppl from seeking help when needed
What is primary AoR?
in certain contexts the D has no duty to act non-negligently toward the P b/c of the nature of the activity they are engaged in
i.e. - recreational sports
Under the theory of avoidable consequences, when the P fails to take reasonable steps either before or after injury to mitigate her damages, is the D liable for those additional damages which could have been avoided?
In what context does avoidable consequences generally arise?