Anatomy terms

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emmyd1992
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159151
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Anatomy terms
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2012-06-17 22:58:48
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anatomy
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anatomy
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  1. A
    No, not, without
  2. Ab
    Away from
  3. Ad
    Toward
  4. Af
    Toward
  5. Ana
    Up
  6. Ante
    Before
  7. Carcin(o)
    Cancer
  8. Cardi(o)
    Heart
  9. Centesis
    Piercing
  10. Chondr(o)
    Cartilage
  11. Circum
    Around
  12. Cyt(o)
    Cell
  13. Dys
    Bad
  14. Ectomy
    Excision, removal
  15. Ef
    Away from
  16. En/em
    Inside
  17. Endo
    Inside
  18. Epi
    Above, upon
  19. Epitheli(o)
    Epithelium (type of tissue)
  20. Erythro
    Red
  21. Ex/exo
    Outside,without,away from
  22. Extra
    Outside
  23. Hem / angi(o)
    Blood / vessel
  24. Hemi
    Half
  25. Hemo
    Blood
  26. Hyper
    More
  27. Hypo
    Under
  28. Infra
    Below
  29. Inter
    Between
  30. Intra
    Within
  31. Iso
    Equal
  32. Itis
    Inflammation
  33. Lei(o)
    Smooth
  34. Leuko
    White
  35. Lip(o)
    Fat
  36. Logy
    Study of
  37. Lysis
    Process of destroying
  38. Mal
    Bad
  39. Melan(o)
    Black
  40. Meta
    Change, next
  41. Mid
    Middle
  42. My(o)
    Muscle
  43. Myei(o)
    Bone marrow
  44. Ne(o)
    New
  45. Neur(o)
    Nerve
  46. Hist(o)
    Tissue
  47. Nucle(o)
    Nucleus
  48. Onc(o)
    Tumor
  49. Oma
    Tumor
  50. Oste(o)
    Bone
  51. Peri
    Around
  52. Phag(o)
    Eat
  53. Post
    After, behind
  54. Plasia
    Formation
  55. Plasm
    Substance, matter
  56. Pseudo
    False
  57. Re
    Back again
  58. Retro
    Behind, backward
  59. Sarc(o)
    Flesh/muscle
  60. Ser(o)
    Serum
  61. Some
    Body
  62. Stasis
    Stopping, controlling
  63. Sub
    Below, under
  64. Super / supra
    Above or excess, beyond
  65. Trans
    Through
  66. Troph(o) or troph(y)
    Nutrition
  67. Viscer(o)
    Viscera
  68. Gross anatomy
    Study of large body structures visible to the naked eye
  69. ADH & negative feedback w/ ADH
    • Prevents too much fluid from being lost.
    • Receptor senses decreased blood volume.
    • Hypothalmus simulated pituitary gland to realease ADH.
    • Cause kidney to return more water to blood.
  70. Positive feedback
    Response enhanse or exaggerated the original stimulus
  71. Negative feedback
    Response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus
  72. Efferent pathway
    Takes signal from control center to effector for response.
  73. Afferent Pathway
    takes signal from receptor to control center
  74. Efferent Pathway
    Takes signal from control center to effector for response
  75. Components of Homeostasis
    Receptor -> Control Center -> effector
  76. Positive feedback w/ oxytocin
    labor is enhanced by oxytocin to relax walls
  77. Total magnification of a microscope
    Power of occular lens x power of objective lens
  78. Platelet formation
    • Positive feedback control
    • -Loss in blood causes platelets to adhere & release chemicals 
  79. Structural Organization
    Chemical level  ->  cellular ->  tissue -> organ -> organ system -> organismal
  80. Microscopic Anatomy
    structures to small for the naked eye; usually tissue sections
  81. Cytology
    study of cells
  82. Necessary Functions of Life (8)
    • 1 homeostasis 
    • 2 movement
    • 3 responsiveness
    • 4 digestion
    • 5 metabolism
    • 6 excretion
    • 7 reproduction
    • 8 growth  
  83. Survival Needs
    • 1 nutrients
    • 2 oxyge
    • 3 water
    • 4 normal body temp
    • 5 appropriate atmospheric pressure 
  84. Regional Anatomy
    all the structures in a particular region of the body
  85. Hyplosis
  86. Lordosis
  87. Scoliosis
  88. Hyoid bone
    attachment of tounge in throat
  89. Number of true ribs
    1-7
  90. Number of floating ribs
    11 & 12
  91. Number of false ribs
    8-12
  92. Mammary
    breast
  93. Manus
    hand region
  94. Mental
    chin
  95. Nasal
    nose
  96. Oral
    Mouth
  97. Orbital
    Bony eye socket
  98. Palmar
    palm of hand
  99. Axial
    head, neck, & trunk
  100. Appendicular
    limbs 
  101. Abdominal
    pertaining to anterior body trunk region under ribs
  102. Acromial
    point of shoulder
  103. Antebrachial
    forearm
  104. Antecubital
    anterior surface of elbow
  105. Axillary
    armpit
  106. Brachial
    arm between shoulder & elbow
  107. Buccal
    cheek
  108. Carpal
    wrist
  109. Cephalic
    head region
  110. Cervical
    neck region
  111. Coxal
    hip
  112. Crural
    shin
  113. Digital
    fingers or toes
  114. Femoral
    thigh
  115. Fibular
    side of leg

    (a.k.a. peroneal) 
  116. Frontal
    forehead
  117. Hallux
    great toe
  118. Orbital Cavities
    house the eyes & present them in an anterior position
  119. Middle Ear Cavities 
    • medial to eardrums
    • contain tiny bones 
  120. Nasal Cavity
    within & posterior to the nose
  121. Synovial Cavities
    • joint cavities
    • secrete lubricating fluid 
  122. Epidermis Layers
    • stratum corneum
    • stratum granulasum
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum basale 
  123. Keratinocytes
    epidermal cells that produce keratin
  124. Dermis Layers
    papillary & reticular
  125. Apocrine glands
    secrete through hair follicle
  126. Eccrine Gland
    sweat glands
  127. Hypodermis
    • fat layer
    • has free nerve endings 
  128. Body of Nail
    visible attached portion
  129. Free Edge of Nail
    portion that grows out away (tip)
  130. Lateral Nail Fold
    skin that overlaps the sides of the nail
  131. Proximal Nail Fold
    Skin that overlaps bottom of nail
  132. Eponychium
    cuticle
  133. Nail Matrix
    • at end of nail (under skin)
    • responsible for nail growth 
  134. Lunule
    white proximal region 
  135. Arrector Pili Muscle
    contract * slant the hair
  136. Cutaneous Membrane
    skin
  137. Mucous Membrane
    • epithelial cell resting on a large layer of loose connective tissue
    • line digestive system & respiratory system 
  138. Serous Membrane
    layer of simple squamous epithelium on auolar (sp) tissue
  139. Organelles
    "small organs"
  140. Chromosomes
    • chromatin (DNA) that's coiled & condensed
    • during cell division 
  141. Chromatin
    • DNA is loosly dispersed throughout nucleus
    • during non-cell division 
  142. Cytosol
    fluid cytoplasmic material
  143. Centrioles
    during cell division they direct formation of mitotic spindle
  144. Microvilli
    • finer-like folds of the membrane
    • increase the surface area 
  145. Nuclear Envelope
    • binds nucleus
    • double membrane 
  146. Nucleus
    contains genetic material
  147. Interphase
    cell grows & carries out usual activity
  148. Mitosis
    • Nuclear division 
    • product is two identical cells 
  149. Cytokinesis
    division of cytoplasm
  150. Meiosis
    • nuclear division
    • yields 4 completely different cells 
  151. Prophase
    • chromosomes form
    • mitotic spinle form
    • nuclear envelope & nucleolus breakdown 
  152. Metaphase
    chromosomes migrate to center
  153. Anaphase
    enzyme "seperate" cleaves cohesion & centromeres split
  154. Telophase
    • chromosomes -> chromatin
    • spindle breaks down
    • nuclear envelope & nucleoli appear 
  155. Inguinal
    groin
  156. Patellar
    anterior kneecap region
  157. Pedal
    foot region
  158. Pelvic
    pelvis region
  159. Pollex
    thumb
  160. Pubic
    genitals
  161. Sternal
    sternum (breast bone)
  162. Tarsal
    ankle
  163. Thoracic
    chest region
  164. Umbilical
    naval
  165. Calcaneal
    heel of foot
  166. Dorsum
    back region
  167. Gluteal
    butt
  168. Lumbar
    back between ribs & hits
  169. Occipital
    posterior of head or base of skull
  170. Olecranal
    posterior part of elbow
  171. Otic
    ear
  172. Perineal
    between anus & genitals
  173. Plantar
    sole of foot
  174. Popliteal
    posterior side of knee
  175. Sacral
    between hips
  176. Scapular
    shoulder blade
  177. Sural
    calf
  178. Vertebral
    spinal cord area
  179. Superior
    above (cranial)
  180. Inferior
    below (caudal)
  181. Medial
    toward midline of body ->|<-
  182. Lateral
    away from midline <-|->
  183. Intermediate
    between medial & lateral -> x <-|-> x<-
  184. Cranial
    toward head (superior)
  185. Caudal
    away from head (inferior)
  186. Dorsal
    toward back of body behind
  187. Ventrical
    • toward front of body 
    • in front of 
  188. Proximal
    closer to origin on the body
  189. Distal
    farther from the origin of a body part
  190. Superficial
    toward or at the body surface (external)
  191. Deep
    away from the body surface (internal)
  192. Cephalad
    cranial, superior
  193. Transverse Place
    divide body horizontally into superior & inferior (upper & lower)
  194. Frontal plane
    divide vertically into anterior & posterior (front & back)
  195. Sagittal Plane
    • divide vertically into right & left
    • not always equal sides 
  196. Midsagittal Plane
    • sagittal plane lies on midline
    • vertically left & right equal portions 
  197. Parasagittal Plane
    • sagittal plane not on midline
    • vertical left & right not symetrical 
  198. Oblique Section
    cuts made diagonally
  199. Dorsal Cavity
    • protects nervous system
    • 2 subdivisions: cranial & vertebrae cavities
  200. Ventral Cavity
    • house internal organs
    • 2 subdivisions: thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
  201. Cranial Cavity
    encases brain
  202. Vertebral Cavity
    encases spinal cord
  203. Thoracic Cavity
    • surrounded by the ribs & muscles of the chest
    • contains: pleural cavity & mediastinum 
  204. Abdominal Cavity
    contains: stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, & other organs
  205. Pelvic Cavity
    contains: urinary bladder, some reproductive organs, & the rectum
  206. Abdominopelvic Quadrants (#'s)
    1 3
    2 4 
    • 1 Right Upper
    • 2 Right Lower
    • 3 Left Upper
    • 4 Left lower
  207. Abdominopelvic Regions
    1 4 7
    2 5 8
    3 6 9
    • 1 Right hypochondriac
    • 2 right lumbar
    • 3 right inguinal
    • 4 epigastric
    • 5 umbilical
    • 6 hypogastric
    • 7 left hypochondriac
    • 8 left lumbar
    • 9 left inguinal 
  208. Right hypochondriac Region
    liver
  209. Epigastric Region
    stomach
  210. Umbilical Region
    • transverse colon of large intestine
    • small intestine 
  211. Hypogastric Region
    Urinary bladder
  212. Left Hypochondriac Region
    Diaphragm
  213. Left Lumbar Region
    descending colon of large intestine
  214. Left Inguinal Region
    initial part of sigmoid colon
  215. Right Lumbar Region
    • gall bladder
    • ascending colon of large intestine 
  216. Right Inguinal Region
    • Cecum
    • appendix 
  217. Pathological Anatomy
    study of structural changes caused from a disease
  218. Molecular Biology
    study of structures at a subcellular level
  219. Radiographic Anatomy
    study of interna; structures visualized by specialized scanning procedures
  220. Developmental Anatomy
    studying development that occurs throughout lifespan
  221. Systemic Anatomy
    body structures being studied system by system
  222. Tubercle
    small rounded projection
  223. Epicondyle
    raised area on or above a condyle
  224. Spine
    sharp slender projection
  225. Crest
    narrow ridge
  226. Process
    projection
  227. Trochanter
    large blunt projection
  228. Line
    narrow ridge, less prominant than crest
  229. Tuberosity
    large rounded projections
  230. Head
    bone expansion on a neck
  231. Facet
    smooth articular surface
  232. Condyle
    rounded projection
  233. Ramus
    armlike bar of bone
  234. Fossa
    shallow depression
  235. Groove
    divets
  236. Fissure
    narrow slit-like opening
  237. Foramen
    round opening through a bone
  238. Notch
    indentation at an edge
  239. Meatus
    canals
  240. Sinus
    bone cavity lined with mucous membrane
  241. Histology
    study of tissues

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