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  1. What are the four typologies of rapists?
    • Power Reassurance
    • Power Assertive
    • Anger Retaliatory
    • Anger Excitation
  2. Are emergency rooms required to report rape?
    No - 11/01/2009 - Hospitals are not required to report rape, rape by instrumentation, or forcible sodomy committed on adult victims, unless the victim requests the crime be reported to law enforcement.
  3. SANE exam legislation
    2008 - SANE exams free for rape victims whether or not they choose to report to law enforcement
  4. Definition of rape
    Rape is a physical assault that is perpetrated sexually and includes the elements of anger, power/control, and sexual contact.
  5. Where does Oklahoma rank in rape?
    8th worst in the nation
  6. What percentage of girls are raped?
    1 in 3
  7. What percentage of boys are raped?
    1 in 7-10
  8. What percentage of women are raped?
    1 in 5
  9. What percentage of men are raped?
    1 in 33
  10. When and where was the first Rape Crisis Center established?
    Washington DC in 1972
  11. What was a “bride price”?
    • ♀ were property of their fathers
    • brides were purchased by the groom/his family
    • bride price was paid to compensate fathers for their loss of property
    • possession of the ♀ (property) passed from father to husband
  12. What precipitated the Rape Awareness Movement?
    The Women's Movement
  13. Investigators and prosecutors may not ask rape victims to undergo what type of test?
  14. Power Reassurance Rapist
    Basic Characteristics
    • - most common & least violent
    • - easiest to profile & catch
    • - usually starts as peeping tom
    • - ritualistic
  15. Power Reassurance Rapist
    Force Level
    minimal to moderate
  16. Power Reassurance Rapist
    Purpose of Assault
    • reassurance of masculinity
    • elevate self-esteem
    • does not intend to hurt/degrade victim
  17. Power Reassurance Rapist
    Modus operandi
    • only enough force to control victim
    • if he needs a weapon, chooses one from the home of the victim
    • pre-selects victim through surveillance/peeping; may have several victims selected in advance
    • typically uses surprise approach
    • attacks in/near victim's residence
    • attacks occur between midnight & 5am (often a dead giveaway to this type of rapist)
    • victim is home alone or with small children, will not go in if a ♂ is present
    • victim is close to his age
    • may request victim to talk dirty but uses little profanity himself
    • may re-contact victim
    • takes souvenirs  - most popular are drivers' licenses, lingerie & photos
    • has victim remove her own clothes, often exposes only body parts necessary for rape to occur
    • keeps records - diaries, newspaper clippings, computer files
    • may spend a long time with victim
    • may escalate over time as experience builds his confidence 
    • attacks near his home/work, typically walks to crime scene
  18. Power Reassurance Rapist
    Time Between Rapes
    7 - 15 days
  19. Power Reassurance Rapist
    Personal Profile
    • low self-esteem
    • underachiever
    • non-athletic
    • usually single
    • low educational level
    • if he dates, she is significantly younger
    • usually white
    • lives within walking distance of first rapes
    • nocturnal
    • nuisance sex offenses (scatophilia, exhibitionism, voyeurism)
    • loner
    • menial job
    • older model car
  20. Power Assertive Rapist
    Basic Characteristics
    • less common, more violent
    • profile fits many date rapists
    • impulsive
    • wants to dominate 
  21. Power Assertive Rapist
    Force Level 
  22. Power Assertive Rapist
    Purpose of Assault 
    • asserting & expressing his manhood through rape
    • wants to hurt ♀ 
  23. Power Assertive Rapist
    Modus operandi 
    • often verbally abusive
    • typically uses a "con" approach with victims
    • victim is his age or close
    • normally attacks in early evening
    • attacks away from his home/work
    • rips/tears off victim's clothing (very important detail to this profile)
    • multiple assaults (oral + vaginal + anal, for example) in same attack
    • often meets victim in a bar
    • he's probably a regular at the bar; other regulars know him and that he preys on ♀ 
  24. Power Assertive Rapist
    Personal Profile 
    • macho
    • married/divorced, may have serial marriages
    • attacks are sporadic
    • flashy dresser
    • car reflects his image
    • goes to singles' bars, drinks what is popular 
    • ♂-oriented job
    • self-centered
    • arrest background may = disturbance, resisting arrest
    • may escalate violence over time or during a single attack
  25. Power Assertive Rapist
    Time Between Rapes 
    20 - 25 days
  26. Anger Retaliatory Rapist
    Basic Characteristics 
    • even less common than Power Assertive type
    • excessive violence 
    • enraged
    • hard to catch
    • hates ♀ 
    • impulsive
    • has suffered real or perceived insult from an important ♀ 
  27. Anger Retaliatory Rapist
    Force Level 
    • excessive
    • brutal
    • victim more likely to suffer physical injuries 
  28. Anger Retaliatory Rapist
    Purpose of Assault 
    • he is angry
    • punishes & degrades ♀ in order to act out his anger
  29. Anger Retaliatory Rapist
    Modus operandi 
    • spontaneous crime
    • still planned but usually unknown victim
    • opportunistic
    • verbally, physically & sexually abusive
    • uses blitz approach
    • spends short time with victim but she will be injured
    • victim is his age or older
    • may select symbolic victims, but is opportunistic in victim selection
    • attacks are episodic - not very predictable but occur at any time, whenever he is triggered
    • often drinks/drugs before attack 
  30. Anger Retaliatory Rapist
    Personal Profile 
    • explosive temper, explosive personality
    • substance abuse quite common
    • impulsive
    • lone wolf, but not a loner - comfortable alone but has some friends
    • very self-centered, but not inadequate
    • con man
    • action-oriented "manly" job
    • often involved in team sports
    • attacks at any time of day or night
    • rents home
    • car is commensurate with status but usually very nice and well-maintained
    • probably married before
    • arrest history may = aggravated assault, domestic violence 
  31. Anger Retaliatory Rapist
    Time Between Rapes 
    6 - 12 months
  32. Anger Excitation Rapist
    Basic Characteristics 
    • least frequent, most rare, most violent, most dangerous
    • hard to catch
    • ritualistic
    • carries rape toolkit
    • rape often happens after victim is dead 
    • frequently rapes with instruments 
  33. Anger Excitation Rapist
    Force Level 
    off-the-charts brutal
  34. Anger Excitation Rapist
    Purpose of Assault 
    • total domination & control
    • physical & emotional pain to victim
    • true sexual sadist 
  35. Anger Excitation Rapist
    Modus operandi 
    • premeditated assaults
    • detailed plan - makes him hard to catch
    • carries rape toolkit
    • plans everything but the victim
    • victim of opportunity (usually)
    • "con" approach
    • selfish & brutal
    • dramatic attitude change - victim says "... like I was with two people" - goes from warm, kind -> cold & brutal when victim is in his grasp
    • keeps victims for hours or days
    • records his activities
    • sexual experimentation level ranges from none to a great deal
    • uses instruments & devices
    • sexual bondage/captivity
    • victims ages vary
    • impulsive attack pattern but actual attacks are ritualistic
    • cuts victims' clothing off with knives or scissors - reflects control 
  36. Anger Excitation Rapist
    Personal Profile 
    • often has a traveling job
    • white male
    • good family man, model citizen, asset to the community
    • nobody ever believes it could be him
    • outdoorsman
    • gun & knife enthusiast/collector
    • may collect medieval torture devices/information, etc.
    • detective magazines are his porn
    • no arrest record
    • loves to drive because it gives him a feeling of power & control 
    • often a college grad; may be a professional
    • above average intelligence
    • likes big dogs
    • late 30s
    • attacks because he is bored with the norm
    • his fantasies are more bizarre & brutal 
    • often lives 2 separate lives: 1 normal, 1 bizarre
    • complete separation between his 2 lives
    • lives in middle-class residential area
    • knowledge of police work
    • antisocial personality & planning/implementation make him difficult to apprehend
    • tells his victims what he plans to do to them in detail 
    • probably many, many more of them than we know about 
  37. Anger Excitation Rapist
    Time Between Rapes
    no apparent pattern
  38. What are the 4 phases of Rape Trauma Syndrome?
    • Acute/Impact Phase
    • Outward Adjustment Phase
    • Depression Phase
    • Integration & Resolution Phase 
  39. Rape Trauma Syndrome
    • Phases may be experienced out of sequence
    • Phases may be experienced more than once
    • Life stage is a significant factor
    • Victims who are younger, divorced/separated, or middle-aged experience more serious concerns about independence
    • Resolution where she returns to pre-rape levels of functioning may never occur
    • Effects of rape are suffered for at least one year
    • Bulk of improvement occurs in first 3 months 
  40. Rape Trauma Syndrome
    Acute/Impact Phase
    • immediately following the rape
    • may last from a few hours to several days 
    • sense of shock, unable to believe what she went through
    • may experience anxiety, feelings of total loss of control, confusion, sense of unreality, guilt and shame, exhaustion, extreme fear sometimes bordering on panic
    • physical symptoms: soreness - generalized or in area of assault, bruising, nausea, stomach pains, loss of apetite, vaginal discharge, itchy or burning sensation upon urination, oral irritation and throat infection, rectal bleeding and/or pain
  41. Rape Trauma Syndrome
    Outward Adjustment Phase
    • Appears to have adjusted
    • Response to pressure from society to go on with her life
    • Feels the same emotions as in the impact phase, but less intensity
    • Experiences alienation, isolation, and depression
    • May last for weeks or months
    • Physical symptoms: headaches, stomach or gastrointestinal problems, dizziness, unintentional weight loss/gain, difficulty breathing, sexual dysfunction
    • Emotional responses: moodiness, decreased concentration, crying, tension, sadness, decreased self-confidence and self-esteem
    • feelings of being out of control
    • embarrassment and humiliation
    • desire for revenge
  42. Rape Trauma Syndrome
    Depression Phase
    • Obsessive memories, low self-esteem, and fear
    • May last for days or months
    • Makes lifestyle changes: move, change jobs, change phone numbers, refuse to go out alone at night, change patterns of work/studying/socializing, may drop off your radar during this phase
    • Behavioral changes and interpersonal problems: difficulty in relationships with partner, family, employer, friends
  43. Rape Trauma Syndrome
    Integration & Resolution Phase
    • Shifts blame & anger from self to rapist
    • May also have anger toward criminal justice system, advocate, society, men
    • Sense of resolution, able to put experience behind her & talk about it without intense feelings
    • Returns to pre-rape levels of functioning
    • "New normal"
    • May last for months or years
  44. Factors of Victim Response
    Pre-Rape: Cognitive Assessment/Determining Alternatives
    • - looking for means of escape
    • - plan to fight back
    • - plan to remain calm so the rapist doesn't injure her
  45. Factors of Victim Response
    Pre-Rape: Verbal Tactics
    • - most common strategy, especially ♀ victims
    • - stalling for time
    • - trying to talk their way out of it
    • - trying to get sympathy by saying they are sick or pregnant
    • - flattery, joking, sarcasm, or verbal aggression
    • - saying someone is coming soon
    • - threatening revenge by a husband/father/boyfriend
    • - These tactics can come back on the victim during investigation & prosecution.
  46. Factors of Victim Response
    Pre-Rape: Physical Action
    • - Running away
    • - Physical resistance
    • - Screaming
    • - May struggle up to the point of penetration, then stop to avoid further injury
  47. Factors of Victim Response
    During Rape: Coping Strategies
    • - many victims do all of this
    • - focus on something else during the attack
    • - concentrate on memorizing details
    • - concentrate on advice they have been given about how to cope (be very aware of this when doing prevention work)
    • - compliance
    • - physiological responses - choking, gagging, nausea, vomiting, urinating, defecating, hyperventilating, losing consciousness - usually not intentional
  48. Factors of Victim Response
    During Rape: Physical Resistance
    • - Many victims don't because they fear escalation of violence - trust & validate victim's instincts! - this reaction is more common in victims with history of child sexual assault
    • - Type of resistance used matches the type of force used by the assailant
    • - Most likely to be used by victims threatened with weapons or where offender initially uses physical force
    • - May experience less severe sexual abuse without suffering any greater injury than victims who do not resist physically
    • - Rape completion is less likely with any kind of resistance
    • - For reducing the probability of injury, non-physical forms of resistance are more effective than either no resistance or physical resistance; verbal resistance is least likely to result in injury.
  49. Factors of Victim Response
    During Rape: Immobilization
    • - This is the FREEZE response
    • - Tonic immobility
    • - - Unlearned state of profound motor inhibition elicited by high-fear situations
    • - - Catatonic-like posture, cessation of vocalization, tremors, periods of eye closure, decrease in heart rate, increase in body temperature & respiration
    • - - Predicted by experiences of childhood sexual victimization or other previous sexual victimization
    • - Traumatic psychological infantilism - childlike affect
    • - - Induced by terror & results in helplessness
    • - - Makes victim appear friendly & cooperative
    • - - Submits to offender to avoid being killed
    • - - May be blamed by responders, family, or self
  50. Factors of Victim Response
    During Rape: "Passive" Resistance
    • - When victim feels anger as well as fright; usually reverts to submissive behavior
    • - "Passive" resistance patterns
    • - - Crying
    • - - Slowness to obey commands
    • - - Appearing they are unable to understand demands
  51. Factors of Victim Response
    Post-Rape: Immediate Post-Assault Response
    • - Escaping from rapist
    • - Freeing herself from where she has been left
    • - Securing her location
    • - Telling others of needs for help & safety
    • - In cases of drug-facilitated rape or unconsciousness, determining what happened
    • - - Will never know for sure what happened = added trauma
  52. Factors of Victim Response
    Post-Rape: PTSD

    • - Sexual assault has higher prevalence of PTSD than any other trauma
    • - May be especially severe & long lasting when compared to victims of other types of trauma
    • - Characteristics of the assault, assault severity, & victim-offender relationship are NOT predictors of PTSD or its severity
    • - History of past trauma & childhood sexual assault ARE predictors of PTSD & its severity
  53. Factors of Victim Response
    Factors that contribute to post-rape PTSD
    • History of traumatic events
    • History of childhood sexual abuse
    • Tonic immobility
    • First assault was as a minor/virgin
    • Not being married
    • Having less education
    • Perceived poor/fair health status
    • Perceived threat during the assault
  54. Factors of Victim Response
    Post-Rape Attribution: Self-Blame
    • Behavioral self-blame
    • - Should have done something differently
    • - Characterological self-blame (This happened to me because I'm a bad person)
    • - - May be exacerbated by religious belief or response of religious figures
    • - Victims who experience negative reactions when they disclose are more likely to self-blame
    • - Associated with greater distress, use of self-destructive coping strategies, increased symptoms, higher rates of PTSD, poorer long term recovery
  55. Factors of Victim Response
    Post-Rape Attribution: External Blame 
    • Blames external factors, such as society
    • Most common
    • May not be conducive to recovery - Higher levels of hostility, anxiety, and depressive symptoms 
  56. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Minimization 
    • Minimizes seriousness and downplays violence
    • Less likely to seek help or support
    • Places additional stress on victim
    • African American women have greater tendency 
  57. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Cognitive Coping/Cognitive Appraisal 
    • Tries to make sense of assault by explaining why it happened and why it happened to them; because there are no answers, this is self-retraumatizing
    • Repeatedly reviews every detail or relives the event 
  58. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Avoidance 
    • Tries to forget
    • Avoids cues
    • May sleep excessively or stay very busy
    • Greater levels of psychological distress & social adjustment problems
    • Happens more frequently when victims have experienced negative reactions from others at disclosure or when they blame themselves
    • Happens more frequently when self or others have expectations of quick recovery
    • Higher incidence with survivors of child sexual abuse 
  59. Factors of Victim Response
    Religious Coping
    • Uses religious views to help make sense of and find meaning in assault
    • May provide a social support network
    • Report positive life changes, for those for whom religious coping is useful
  60. Factors of Victim Response
    Nervous/Anxious Coping 
    • Irritable, nervous and anxious
    • Greater feelings of fear and negative mood states
    • Experience more physical symptoms
    • Higher incidence in survivors of child sexual abuse 
  61. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Withdrawal 
    • "Cocooning" - can be positive
    • Withdraws and stays home
    • Greater symptoms, including fear, depression and sexual dissatisfaction, greater distress
    • Fewer survivors choose this option
    • Survivors who blame themselves are most likely to withdraw 
  62. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Taking Precautions 
    • One of the most common strategies
    • Home - locking doors, not opening door to strangers, putting bars on windows, moving
    • Lifestyle changes - quitting drinking, being careful about where they go
    • Results in lower symptom levels 
  63. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Expressive Strategies 
    • Cry or express feelings
    • Facilitates social support
    • Promotes positive life change soon after assault
    • Alleviates self-blame
    • Results in fewer trauma symptoms 
  64. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Victim Ratings of Support 
    • Most supportive: SANE nurses & sisters
    • Least supportive/frequently confided: husbands & male relatives
    • Rated men as supportive, but less supportive than women 
  65. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Stress Reduction Techniques 
    • Meditation
    • Listening to music
    • Baths
    • Drawing
    • Journaling - Some controversy; can retraumatize, probably depends on if it's a strategy the victim has used before or chooses rather than one that is pushed on her
    • Fewer symptoms & better adjustment 
  66. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Self-Destructive Strategies
    • Drug & alcohol abuse, smoking, binging & purging, laxative abuse, high risk sexual behavior, self-harm, suicide attempts
    • Suicide attempts associated with oral & anal rape and with greater self-blame & guilt
    • Greater risk for survivors of child sexual abuse
    • Results in longer recovery and more psychological symptoms
  67. Factors of Victim Response
    Coping: Finding Positive Meaning 
    • Appreciating life, being more assertive, reevaluating goals, strengthening relationships, being more cautious, taking better care of one's self, growing spiritually
    • Does not mean the rape was positive
    • These survivors are most likely to cope successfully 
  68. Factors Impacting Victim Response to Rape
    • age
    • life situation
    • personality
    • circumstances of the rape
    • response of first responders - HUGELY important, maybe most important
    • response from family & friends
    • response of criminal justice system (Is the prosecutor victim-savvy?)
    • her own attitudes & beliefs about rape - the more educated victims are about rape before it happens, the better they can respond
    • cultural considerations
  69. What are the Pre-Rape Victim Responses?
    • Cognitive assessment/determining alternatives
    • Verbal tactics
    • Physical action 
  70. What are Victim Responses During Rape?
    • Coping strategies
    • Physical resistance
    • Immobilization
    • "Passive" resistance 
  71. What are Post-Rape Victim Responses?
    • Immediate post-assault response
    • PTSD
    • Post-rape attribution 
  72. What are Victim Response Coping Mechanisms?
    • Minimization
    • Cognitive coping/cognitive appraisal
    • Avoidance
    • Religious coping
    • Nervous/anxious coping
    • Withdrawal
    • Taking precautions
    • Expressive strategies
    • Stress reduction strategies
    • Self-destructive strategies
    • Finding positive meaning
Card Set:
2012-07-26 03:13:44
CVSS rape CVSS2123

Flash cards for exam one CVSS 2123 Rape & Sexual Assault - Rape history, myths, definitions; typologies of rapists; victim responses
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