Infectious Diseases Part 2

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Infectious Diseases Part 2
2012-06-18 08:57:34
Patho Pharm infectious diseases

Study guide questions 8-13
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  1. six pathogenic microorganisms
    • Prions
    • Viruses
    • Fungi
    • Protozoa
    • Helminths
    • Bacteria
  2. Prions –
    •  Proteinaceous infectious particles
    •           Protein composition
    •           Causespongiform encephalphty
    •           Disease progresses rapidly and is fatal
    •           Currently untreatable
  3. Viruses
    •           Core RNA or DNA wrapped in capsid (protein coat)
    •           Lipid membrane surrounds capsid that plays a role in how cell recognition
    •            Not considered a living organism
    •           Requires entry into host cells to carry out above function
  4. 3 basic viral morphologies
    • Helical (rod shapped)
    •           Polyhedral (many sided
    •           Complex
  5. Fungi
    • Single or multi celled organisms with cell walls containing special polysaccharides called chitin
    •           Have specialized filaments, mycelia, used to absorb nutrients from their environment
    • Easily infect damaged tissues;
  6. Fungus cause disease by producing 
    Releasing toxins

              Altering normal organ structure or function

              Inducing allergic or inflammatory responses
  7. Fungus have reproductive structures called *****which are *****
    • Spores;
    • allergenic
  8. Fungal infections are know ?? 
  9. Umunocompomised host unable to resist fungal infection leading to opportunistic infections such as
    • Candidiasis
    •           Pneumocystis – indicator of AIDS
  10. Ringworm locations
    • Skin infection common in children, but affects
    • people of all age
    • Body (tinea corporis)

    •    Scalp (tinea capitis)
    • •        Groin (tinea cruris, also called jock itch)
    • •        Feet (tinea pedis, also called athlete's
    • foot)
    • •        Nails (tinea ungulum)
    • •        Hair follicules (tinea barbae)
  11. Four Groups of antifungal medication
    • Polyenes (amphotericin B, nystatin)
    • Imidazoles (ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole)
    • Antimetabolite (flucytosine)
    • Antiprotozoals
  12. Medications used to two types of fungal infections
    Superficial fungal infections of skin and mucous membranes

    Systemic fungal infections of the lungs or central nervous system
  13. What are the general Characteristics of Protozoa
    • Single
    • cell eukaryotic microorganisms

                       Larger than bacteria

    •   Complex internal structure including a nucleus and membranous organelles
    • Found n nearly every habitat
    •   Most do not cause disease
    • May invade host provoking damaging inflammatory responses
  14. 4 classification of Protoza
    • Amoeboid
    •  Flagellates
    •  Ciliates
    •  Sporozoans
  15. Amoeboid
    Move by means of cell membrane extensions called pseudopodia
  16. Flagellates 
    Move by using one or more whip-like appendages
  17. Ciliates
    Few are pathogenic
  18. Sporozoans – 
    Not mobile (Malaria –mosquito bites)
  19. differentiate between
    tissue and erythrocytic phases of malaria 
    Tissue Phase – no clinical symptoms in humans

           Erthrocytes phase – parasites invade red blood cells causing chills, fever, and sweatign
  20. identify the one issue antimalarial drugs have in common with antibiotics
    If drug resistance develops to anti-malarial drugs, use in combination with antibiotics such as tetracycline
  21. identify the four groups of parasitic worms, 
    •        Cestodes – tapeworms
    •        Trematodes –flukes
    •        Intestinal nematodes (roundworms)
    •        Tissue-invading nematodes (tissue roundworms and filariae
  22. identify how the worm infect or infest people
    •        Cestodes – tapeworms –enter via foot from contaminated soil
    •        Trematodes –flukes
    •        Intestinal nematodes (roundworms) – skin of foot, hand, arm, leg – human excrement
    •        Tissue-invading nematodes (tissue roundworms and filariae)
  23. diagnostic test(s) used to examine for infection or
    • Cestodes – tapeworms
    •        Trematodes –flukes
    •        Intestinal nematodes (roundworms) – stool samples
    •        Tissue-invading nematodes (tissue roundworms and filariae)
  24. identify the general shapes of bacteria
    • Baccillus – Rod Sapped
    •        Coccus Round
    •        Spirillum – spiral –shaped
    •        Spirochete, corkscrew-shaped
    •        Vibro, comma-shaped
    •        Cocobalcillu and Fusioform bacillus – not listed in  human diesase

  25. Spirilla
    spiral shaped – a rigid cell wall, and motility mechanisms based on polar flagella –lyme disease syphilis
  26. Spirochetes – 
    corkscrew-shaped – a flexible cell wall and motility mechanism based on structures called axial filaments (rate bite fever, intestinal infection)
  27. gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
    • Gram Positive – blue-purple
    • Gram Negative -  red