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- modifies a noun.
- Examples: yellow, pretty, useful
- pecifies whether the noun is specific or a member of a class. The definite article "the" refers to specific objects. The indefinite articles "a", and "an" refer to an unspecified member of a class. The article "a" is used before a word starting with a consonant sound and "an" is used before a word starting with a vowel sound.
- Examples: a, an, the
- modifies a verb or an adjective. Many adverbs have the suffix -ly.
- Examples: very, extremely, carefully
- joins components of a sentence or phrase. Coordinating conjunctions join clauses which are equally important. A subordinating conjunctionjoins a dependent clause to a main clause. Some conjunctions occur in pairs, e.g., neither ... nor, either ... or.
- Examples: and, but, or
- used for exclamations.
- Examples: Oh!, Aha!
- names an object or action. Common nouns refer to ordinary things. Proper nouns are usually capitalized and refer to persons, specific things or specific places.
- Examples: mouse, fire, Michael
- indicates relationship or relative position of objects.
- Examples: in, about, toward
- used in place of a noun. Personal pronouns are used to refer to persons. Interrogative pronouns introduce questions. Demonstrative pronounsrefer to a previously mentioned object or objects. Relative pronouns introduce clauses.
- Examples: he, this
- specifies an action or links the subject to a complement. The tense of a verb indicates the time when the action happened, e.g., past, present, of future.
- Examples: take, is, go, fire
- The grammatical term "perfect" expresses an action or state completed at the time of speaking or at a time spoken of.
- Examples: Present perfect "has studied" Past perfect "had studied" Future pefect "will have studied"
"continuous" or "progressive"
- Indicates an on-going action.
- Examples: Present perfect continuous "has been studying", [ast perfect continuous "had been studying", future perfect continuous "will have been studying"