Intro Exam 1

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scclark
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159200
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Intro Exam 1
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2012-06-19 17:07:58
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Intro Nursing
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Introduction to Nursing Exam 1
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  1. Discuss various definitions of health.
    • Health: 
    • An organism is performing its vital functions normally and properly
    • A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
    • A dynamic state that changes with time and varies according to circumstances. Optimal health exists when individuals are able to manage their own needs and function within their total capabilities.
    • A condition of physical, mental, and social well-being and the absence of disease or other abnormal condition. It is not a static condition; constant change and adaptation to stress result in homeostasis.
  2. Discuss the various definitions of disease.
    • Disease:
    • A condition of abnormal vital function involiving any structure, part, or system of an organism; a specific illness or disorder characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms, attributable to heredity, infection, diet, or environment.
  3. Discuss the various definitions of wellness.
    • Wellness:
    • A responsibility, a choice, a lifestyle design that helps maintain the highest potential for personal health.
    • A state of optimal health wherein an individual moves toward integration of human functioning, maximizes human potential, takes responsibility for health, and has greater self-awareness and self-satisfaction.
    • A dynamic state of health in which an individual progresses toward a higher level of functioning, achieving an optimum balance between internal and external environments.
  4. Discuss the various definitions of illness.
    • Illness:
    • A diminished or impaired state of health.
    • An abnormal process in which aspects of the social, physical, emotional, or intellecutal condition and function of a person are diminished or impaired, compared with that person's previous condition.
    • Results when an individual's actual and/or perceived needs adversely affect their ability to function.
    • Acute Illness:
    • Short term and severe
    • Symptoms are abrupt and intense, subside after short period of time, affect functioning in any dimension (physical, mental, or social)
    • Chronic Illness:
    • Insidious onset
    • Persists (longer than 6 months)
    • Affect in any dimension
    • Remissions and exacerbations of symptoms common
    • Maximal functioning ----------> Relapses (life-threatening)
  5. Define holistic.
    • Holistic:
    • "Whole"
    • Views all aspects of an individual as an integrated whole - "oneness"
  6. Discuss the dimensions of holistic care.
    • Holistic Care:
    • Physical - healthy body at optimum level; physiological processes
    • Intellectual - critical thinking, problem solving, sound decision making, good judgement, and desire to learn
    • Sociocultural - appreciation of the needs of others, to care about their welfare, and to respect cultural beliefs and practices
    • Psychological - incorporates enjoying creativity, understanding emotions, keeping personal emotions under control, positive about self, othes, and life in general
    • Spiritual - reflects a person's relationships with self, others, nature, and a higher power, involves finding meaning; major force in healing
  7. Identify variables which influence a person's state of health/wellness.
    • Internal:
    • Developmental stage (maturing)
    • Intellecutal background (knowledge of illness/body function)
    • Perception of functioning (our ability to carry out actionss)
    • Emotional factors (affect perception of functioning; varies)
    • Spiritual factors (how we live our lives)
    • External:
    • Family practices (how family's use health care)
    • Socioeconomic factors (lack of insurance, prices)
    • Cultural background (beliefs, values, customs)
    • Risk Factors:
    • Any situation, habit, environmental condition, physiological condition, or other variable that increases the vulnerability
    • Genetic and physiologic factors - family history
    • Age and sex
    • Environment
    • Lifestyle
  8. Discuss guidelines for healthy living.
    • Eat calcium rich foods
    • Limit caffine intake
    • Drink 6-8 cups of fluid
    • Use proper body mechanics
    • Maintain good personal hygiene
    • Interpersonal realtionships
    • Safety rules/regulations      
  9. Discuss the use of alternative/complementary modalities throughout the life cycle.
    • Allopathic Medicine - traditional/conventional western medicine
    • Alternative Therapies - used instead of conventional or mainstream medicine modalities
    • Complementary Therapies - used with conventional medical therapies
    • Integrative Therapy - blending of systems to address the whole person (herbal, chiropractic, massage, biofeedback, acupuncture, hypnosis)   
  10. Identify the types of illness prevention.
    • Primary:
    • Practices designed to prevent health problem from developing (immunizations, washing hands)
    • Least expensive with the greatest benefits
    • Secondary:
    • Early detection, diagnosis, screening, and intervention to reduce consequences of health problem
    • Reduces severity of condition and return to normal level of health ASAP
    • Tertiary:
    • Treatment after symptoms have appeared as to prevent complications and deterioration
    • Minimal effects of long-term disease
    • Rehabilitation         
  11. Explain the concept of the nurse as an instrument of healing in holistic nursing practice.
    • Serve as an instrument of healing thru nurse-client relationship
    • Assist the client to call forth their own inner resources
    • Required attributes of the nurse:
    •      Knowledge
    •      Intentionality (having a direction)
    •      Respect for differences
    •      Ability to model wellness      
  12. Explain each of the levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
    • Physiological Needs: 
    • Highest priority 
    • Basic needs (oxygen, fluid, nutrition, temperature, elimination, shelter, rest, and sex)
    • Safety and Security:
    • Physical safety - eliminating threats to a person's body of life (illness, accident, danger, or environment)
    • Psychological safety - what to expect from others, from procedures, new experiences, and from encounters in the evironment
    • Love and Belonging:
    • Feel loved and accepted by family, peers, and members of the community
    • Esteem and Self-Esteem Needs:
    • Desire for strength, achievement, adequacy, mastery and competence, confidence, and independence and freedom
    • Recognition from others
    • Need for Self-Actualization:
    • Highest-level need, achieve fullest potential
    • Mature in all dimensions     
  13. Define stress.
    • Stress:
    • Response produced when a system's balance is disrupted.
    • A nonspecific response to any deman made on the body.
    • Any emotional, physical, social, or economic, or other factor that requires a response or change.   
  14. Define stressor.
    • Stressor:
    • Disruptive forces operating within or on any system.
    • Any situation, event, or agent that produces stress.
    • Anything that causes wear and tear on the body's physical or mental resources.
    • Stressors may be:
    •      Internal - originate within
    •      External - originate in the environment      
  15. Define adaptation.
    • Adaptation:
    • Stabilization/recovery
  16. Define anxiety.
    • Anxiety:
    • A subjective response that occurs when a person experiences a real or perceived threat to well-being.
    • A vague feeling of apprehension that results from a perceived threat to the self.
    • A diverse feeling of dread, impending doom , or apprehension --- an emotional uneasiness
    • A diffuse apprehension that is vague in nature and is associated with feelings of uncertainty and helplessness
    • Most common emotional response to stress
    • May be conscious or unconscious
    • Can be an activator of stress or a response to stress
  17. Deine defense mechanisms.
    • Defense Mechanisms:
    • An unconscious, automatic activity using energy that protects a person from overwhelming stress and anxiety
    • An intrapsychic reaction that offers protection to the self from stress or a threat - used to block conscious awareness of threatening feelings
    • Adaptive - diminish anxiety and allow an individual to maintain or increase level of functioning
    • Maladaptive - used in a stereotypical, repetitive manner and inhibits the individual's ability to function normally
  18. Describe the three stages of the General Adaptation Syndrome.
    • Alarm Reaction:
    • 1. Hypothalamus
    • 2. Posterior Pituitary: increase ADH, causing increased water reabsorption (increases blood volume and sustain BP and CO), decreasing urine output
    • 3. Anterior Pituitary: increase ACTH, activating the Adreanal Cortex, causing increaed Cortisol, increasing gluconeogenesis (development of new glucose, used for energy), protein and fat catabolism. increase Aldosterone, increaseing sodium reabsorption, water reabsorption, decreased urine output, and increased potassium excretion
    • 4. Sympathetic Nervous System and Adrenal Medulla: increased Epinephrine increases heart rate, oxygen intake, blood glucose, and mental acuity. increased Norephinephrine increases blood flow to skeletal muscle and increased arterial blood pressure
    • 5. Fight-or-flight response
    • Adaptation/Resistance:
    • 1. Stabilization
    • 2. Hormonal levels return to normal
    • 3. PNS activity
    • 4. Adaptation to stressors
    • Exhaustion:
    • 1. Increased physiological resposonse
    • 2. Decreased energy levels
    • 3. Decreased physiological adaptation
    • 4. Death             
  19. List stressors specific to illness.
    • Loss of control
    • Change in routine
    • Dependency on others
    • Role changes
    • Loss of privacy
    • Separation from significant others
    • Fear of the unknown
    • Internal stressors of illness       
  20. Explore factors which may influence an individual's response to stress.
    • Intensity: minimal, severe, or somewhere in between; the greater the perceived magnitude of the stressor, the greater the stress response
    • Scope: the pervasiveness with which a stressor affects a person's total being; the greater the scope of a stressor, the greater the stress response
    • Duration: the length of time the person is exposed to the stressor; the greater the duration, the greater the stress response
    • Number and Nature of Other Stressors Present: multiple stressors experienced simultaneously or a succession of single stressors with no opportunity for the person to rest and regroup results in a greater stress response
    • Predictability: being able to anticipate the occurrence of an event, even if one cannot control it, generally results in a reduced experience of stress
    • Level of Personal Control: believing that one has control over an unpleasant experience, even if that control is never exercised or the belief is erroneous, lessens the level of associated stress and anxiety
    • Feelings of Competence: greater self-confidence in one's ability to manage a stressful even results in less tension and anxiety
    • Cognitive Appraisal: the greater the personal meaning of an event, the greater the stress associated with it; thus the same even may cause differing levels of stress in different people
    • Availability of Social Supports: the emotioinal concern and support of other people reduce the negative effects of stress
    • Developmental Level: how a person understands or deals with stress
    • Age: children only have limited numbers of coping mechanisms
  21. Describe the effects of stress on the whole individual.
    • Physiologic:
    • Tachypnea
    • Weight gain or loss of more than 10 pounds
    • Muscle tension
    • Loss of sex drive
    • Frequent or prolonged colds/flu
    • Shingles     
    • Psychologic:
    • Disruption of logical thinking
    • Blaming others
    • Lack of motivation
    • Crying
    • Lack of interest
    • Irritability
    • Isolation
    • Diminished initiative
    • Negative thinking        
    • Cognitive:
    • Forgetfulness
    • Denial
    • Poor concentration
    • Confusion
    • Lowered attention span
    • Memory problems     
    • Behavioral:
    • Worrying
    • Change in activity level
    • Withdrawal
    • Suspiciousness  
    • Spiritual:
    • Going back to church
    • Angered at higher power     
  22. Identify responses to anxiety.
    • Mild:
    • Increased alertness
    • Vigilance
    • Motivation
    • Enhanced learning
    • Seldomly a problem; usually positive 
    • Moderate:
    • Subjective distress
    • Decreased perception/attention
    • Alert to only specific information
    • Headahce, nausea, vomitting, diarrhea
    • Elevated vital signs
    • Decreased learning
    • Increased sweating
    • Changes in speech
    • Severe:
    • Increased subjected distress
    • Feeling of impending danger
    • Selective attention
    • Distorted communication/perception
    • Fatigue
    • Panic:
    • Major perceptual changes
    • Immobilization
    • Feelings of terror
    • Possible harm to self or others (accidentally)
    • Tachycardia
    • Hyperventilation
    • Tremmors
    • Palpitations
    • Hallucination/delusions
    • Extreme withdraw
    • Physical exahaustion (possibly death)                      

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