First 5 Chapters of Kinesiology - Movement in the context of Activity
Kinesiology VS Biomechanics as related to OT
Kinesiology is the study of movement and all structures involved. Focuses on the forces that affect movement. Biomechanics is one perspective of kinesiology that studies the action of internal or external forces on the human body.
Baldwins Reconstruction Model
Therapist creates voluntary activities that are graded and adapted to speciic muscles, movements and activities to encourage a return of function.
Uses anatomy physiology kinesiology and pathology to devise treatemnts taht strengthen specivic mm or m groups or increase joint movement.
Licht and Duncans Kinetic Model of OT
Promotes activity analysis and adaptive equipment. Breaks treatment into 4 steps
1) Outline and define musculoskeletal problems
2) Create exercises that restore and maintian function
3) Find and create adaptive equipment to reach functinoal activity goals
4) Measure functional musculoskeletal progress in treatment
Jean Ayers OT Contribution
Sensory Integration - theorized that small changes in sensory processing can lead to large adaptive changes.
Emphasizes adaptations that work dowward functional activities rather than strictly the rehabilitation of a specific body part.
Anne Fisher's 4 domains of function
1) level of independence
2) Level of effort
3) Degree of efficiency
4) Degree of safety
Neck and shoulder are innervated by
upper extremeties are innervated by
Lower extremeties are innervated by
Lumbar and sacral plexuses
Cranial nerves supply:
Head and neck
Vagus nerve supplies (CN X)
UMN Syndrome causes:
Paralysis spasticity and increased mm tension
LMN Syndrome causes
Flaccid paralysis and low MM tone
Neurons fire neurotransmitters in response to a proglonged m stretch
Neurons fire neurotransmitters in response to rapid changes in the length of mm spindles
Reflex arcs that counteract gravity take place in ________?
The fluid filled space between two bones that allows for the greatest movement. Bones connected by ligaments.
Bones connected by cartilage allowing for limited movement.
Fibrous interface between bones that allows for almost no movement.
a range of movement regularly repeated in a particular movement or performance of a function.
all fibers of the m run directly from origin to insertion
Contraction vs contracture
healthy temporary shortening compared to a pathological permanent shortening of mm or skin
opposing force pulls on a mm as it contracts to slow or stop the effect of the opposing force (other mm, gravity, external forces)
MM fibers shorten to cause active movement.
opposing force = stabilizing contraction
Damage to cerebellum affects:
mm tone and coordination
movement modifications after hip arthioplasty
no hip flexion beyond 90 degrees
no internal rotation or hip adduction past the neutral position