OT General Knowledge

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OT General Knowledge
2012-06-18 16:37:42
General Knowledge OT

First 5 Chapters of Kinesiology - Movement in the context of Activity
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  1. Kinesiology VS Biomechanics as related to OT
    Kinesiology is the study of movement and all structures involved. Focuses on the forces that affect movement.  Biomechanics is one perspective of kinesiology that studies the action of internal or external forces on the human body.
  2. Baldwins Reconstruction Model
    Therapist creates voluntary activities that are graded and adapted to speciic muscles, movements and activities to encourage a return of function.
  3. Orthopedic Model

    Uses anatomy physiology kinesiology and pathology to devise treatemnts taht strengthen specivic mm or m groups or increase joint movement. 
  4. Licht and Duncans Kinetic Model of OT
    Promotes activity analysis and adaptive equipment.  Breaks treatment into 4 steps

    • 1) Outline and define musculoskeletal problems
    • 2) Create exercises that restore and maintian function
    • 3) Find and create adaptive equipment to reach functinoal activity goals
    • 4) Measure functional musculoskeletal progress in treatment
  5. Jean Ayers OT Contribution
    Sensory Integration - theorized that small changes in sensory processing can lead to large adaptive changes.  
  6. Rehabilitation Model
    Emphasizes adaptations that work dowward functional activities rather than strictly the rehabilitation of a specific body part.  
  7. Anne Fisher's 4 domains of function
    • 1) level of independence
    • 2) Level of effort
    • 3) Degree of efficiency
    • 4) Degree of safety 
  8. Neck and shoulder are innervated by
    Cervical Plexus
  9. upper extremeties are innervated by
    brachial plexus
  10. Lower extremeties are innervated by
    Lumbar and sacral plexuses
  11. Cranial nerves supply:
    Head and neck
  12. Vagus nerve supplies (CN X)
  13. UMN Syndrome causes:
    Paralysis spasticity and increased mm tension
  14. LMN Syndrome causes
    Flaccid paralysis and low MM tone
  15. Tonic Response
    Neurons fire neurotransmitters in response to a proglonged m stretch 
  16. Phasic response:
    Neurons fire neurotransmitters in response to rapid changes in the length of mm spindles
  17. Reflex arcs that counteract gravity take place in ________?
    the brainstem
  18. Diarthrodial Joints:
    The fluid filled space between two bones that allows for the greatest movement.  Bones connected by ligaments.
  19. Amphiarthrodial joints:
    Bones connected by cartilage allowing for limited movement.  
  20. Synarthrodial Joints
    Fibrous interface between bones that allows for almost no movement.
  21. Excursion:
    a  range of movement regularly repeated in a particular movement or performance of a  function. 
  22. Fusiform MM
    all fibers of the m run directly from origin to insertion
  23. Contraction vs contracture
    healthy temporary shortening compared to a pathological permanent shortening of mm or skin
  24. Eccentric contraction
    opposing force pulls on a mm as it contracts to slow or stop the effect of the opposing force (other mm, gravity, external forces)
  25. Concentric contraction
    MM fibers shorten to cause active movement.
  26. Isometric contraction
    opposing force = stabilizing contraction 

    No movement 
  27. goniometer
  28. Sagital


  29. Damage to cerebellum affects:
    mm tone and coordination
  30. movement modifications after hip arthioplasty
    • no hip flexion beyond 90 degrees
    • no internal rotation or hip adduction past the neutral position