Roman World Exam 2

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  1. Jurgurtha
    • Numidian
    • adopted by king Mieipea
    • Was to Rule Masinissa
    • Murdered 1 brother and drove out the other
  2. War with Jurgurtha
    • Began when Jurgurtha murdered his brother Adherbal
    • Sulla persuaded an ally King Bocchus to betray Jurgurtha
    • Rome achieved no gain from this war
    • Jurgurtha was executed by the Romans
  3. Numidia
    • Ally of Rome
    • Located in North Africa
    • Capital was Cirta
    • Was split between King Bocchus and a brother of Jurgurtha
  4. Cirta
    • Capital city of Numidia
    • fell to Julius Caesar
    • Was destroyed in the Fourth Century
    • was rebuilt by Constantine the Great
  5. Quintus Caecilius Metellus
    • Led Romes forces in Numidia
    • Turned the tide of hte war with Jrugurtha
    • Was replaced by Marius
    • Controlled the battle from 109-108
  6. Gaius Marius
    • Reformed the Roman army
    • elected to the senate
    • Reestablished the tradition of soldiers giving their loyalty to a general instead of the state
    • helped to destroy threat of Germanic Invasion from Gaul
  7. Cimbri and Teutones
    • Migrating germanic Tribes
    • defeated by Gaius Marius
    • Battle on the Rhone costed the Romans 70,000 troops
    • marked the decline of the oligarchy
  8. Battle of the Aequae Sextiae
    • took place in 102 BC
    • led by Gaius Marius
    • defeated the Teutones and Ambrones
    • the captured women committed mass suicide
  9. Pilum
    • A Javelin
    • A form of personal artillery
    • was perfected for battle by Marius
    • was used to disrupt enemy formation
  10. Lucius Appuleius Saturninus
    • Political Rival of Gaius Marius
    • was a Tribune
    • was stoned to death after being declared a public enemy
    • gave land to veterans of the Cimbri and Teutones war
  11. Lex Provincae
    • Divided a province into regions
    • marked out tax regions
    • divided the province into Conventius for Judicial purposes
    • defined the relationships between the senate, magistrates, and popular assembly
  12. Publicani
    • public contractors
    • supplied the roman legions
    • collected port duties
    • oversaw public building projects
  13. Quaestio de Repetundis
    • Special jury court
    • heard complaints against senators
    • created to hold senators to a higher standard
    • proved to be quite ineffective
  14. Livius Drusus
    • Tribune
    • took office in 91
    • set out to strengthen senatorial rule
    • was assassinated after proposing that italians become citizens
  15. Optimates
    • Aristocratic party
    • Sulla was a member
    • were typically conservative
    • dominant group in the Senate
  16. populares
    • allied with Marius
    • sought support against the dominant oligarchy
    • a patrician political group
    • flourished from 133-27 BC
  17. Social War
    • Rebellion waged by Rome's Italian allies
    • occured after Livius Drusus was assassinated
    • Rome passed law that made all Italians Roman Citizens
    • Linked all Italians south of the Po River by an Alliance
  18. Autumn of 90 BC
    • Offered citizenship to all allies which remained loyal to Rome
    • Was during the Roman Social Wars
    • the offer that was made at this time proved to be grossly ineffective
  19. Sulpicius Rufus
    • Plebian Tribune
    • Passed law to enroll the new italian citizens in all 35 tribes
    • wanted to recall all exiles
    • wanted to exclude all members of the senate who were deeply in debt
    • Attempted to replace Sulla with Marius in command of the legions
  20. Lucius Cornelius Sulla
    • Victor of the first full scale civil war in Roman History
    • was also dictator
    • attempted to strengthen the Republic through Constitutional reforms
    • created a precedent in which Julius Caesar could follow
  21. Lucius Cornelius Cinna
    • Leader of the Marian Party who opposed Sulla
    • Became Consul in 87
    • Was expelled from Rome after proposing the reintroduction of a bill by Rufus
    • he then collected an army and captured Rome
  22. Graeus Pompeius
    • Put down Mithrodates in the east
    • held control of 3 legions
    • was given proconsular powers
    • tasked with driving pirates out of the Mediterranean
  23. Battle of the Colline Gates
    • Samnites were recruited by anti-Sullan factors
    • sulla won this Battle
    • Ended the italian Resistance
    • occured in 82 BC
  24. Sulla's Reforms of the Tribunate
    • A man who served as tribune was barred from standing any other office
    • tribunes authority was greatly reduced
    • was modified because it was the most obvious institution that might seek to oppose Sulla
    • Crippled it made it little more than a hollow title
  25. Quaestiones
    • Jury Courts
    • Excluded the Equites from Membership in these
    • Restricted the Juries to senators only
    • occured after sulla became dictator
  26. Marcus Aemilianus Lepidus
    • Senator
    • Tried to overthrow the constitution imposed by Sulla
    • His proposals were rejected by the senate
    • gathered forces in Etruria and marched on Gaul and was defeated
  27. Quintus Sertorius
    • Became governor of Nearer Spain
    • Defied the senate
    • became independent Ruler of most of Spain for 8 years
    • established a senate in Spain composed of 300 members
  28. Marcus Perperna Veiento
    • Leader of the Italian Uprising
    • Assassinated Sertorius
    • was defeated and executed by Pompey
    • Hoped Pompey might reward him for his treachery
  29. Spartacus
    • A thracian
    • Established a stronghold for slaves on Mt. Vesuvius
    • Was also a slave
    • wanted to disperse slaves to their homelands
  30. Crassus
    • Formed the first triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Pompey
    • death led to civil war between Caesar and Pompey
    • Was the wealthiest man in Rome
    • Was elected Censor in 65
  31. Marcus Antonius
    • Roman Praetor
    • Given command to destroy pirates in the Mediterranean
    • was defeated in Crete
    • later annexed Crete to Roman Control
  32. Mithrodates VI
    • Challenged Roman Rule in Asia Minor
    • Was champion of Hellenism
    • Was invaded by Lucius Murena
    • was the Ruler of Pontus
  33. Lucullus
    • Roman general who fought Mithridates
    • Severed in the Social war under Sulla
    • was Governor of Cilicia and Asia
    • one one of Sulla's officers to take part in his March on Rome
  34. Lucius Sergius Catiline
    • attempted to overthrow the republic when cicero was a consul
    • served under pompey's father in the social war
    • was killed at Pistoria
    • governor of Africa from 67-66
  35. Marcus Tullius Cicero
    • Tried to uphold republican principles in the final wars that destroyed the republic
    • declined Caesars invitatiion to join the first triumvirate
    • Greatest Roman orator
    • Innovator of Ciceronian Rhetoric
  36. Publius Clodius Pulcher
    • Enemy of Cicero
    • Elected Tribune in 58
    • Disguised himself as a woman to gain entrance to a rite
    • Caesars wife was disgraced and divorced
  37. The First Triumvirate
    • 3 Man govt
    • Was held between Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus
    • Was illegal without the backing of Roman law
    • designed to wrest a consulship from the optimates
  38. Julius Caesar
    • Roman General and Statesman
    • Conqueror of Gaul
    • Self appointed perpetual dictator
    • was assassinated for launching a series of social and political reforms
  39. Battle of Carrhae
    • Battle that stopped the Roman invasion of Mesopotamia
    • Was launched by Crassus
    • Rome was defeated
    • Crassus was killed causing serious repercussions to Roman political life
  40. Helvetii
    • Celtic people of the Swiss Plateau
    • Attempted to migrate to Gaul
    • Julius Caesar who was governor of Gaul refused to allow them to do this
    • Caesar defeated them near Bibracte
  41. Julia
    • Daughter of Julius Caesar
    • Was married to Pompey the Great
    • Died in 53
    • Was the hinge of the alliance b/w Caesar and Pompey of the First Triumvirate
  42. Parthians
    • feudal empire located in modern day Iran
    • was threatened by Crassus
    • was a threat to Rome after they invaded Syria
  43. Crossing the Rubicon
    • Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49
    • Violated the lex Cornelia Majestatis
    • Led to a 3 year civil war
    • Resulted in caesar becoming the ruler of the Roman World
  44. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus
    • Leader of the Optimates
    • was appointed governor of Gaul after Caesar crossed the Rubicon
    • Tried to stop Caesars army from marching into Rome
    • was defeated and captured by Caesar at Corfinium
  45. Battle of Pharsalus
    • Battle between Julius Caesar and Pompey
    • Occured during the Roman Civil War
    • Caesar had half the troops of Pompey
    • Pompey's troops were defeated and Pompey fled
  46. King Pharnaces
    • Son of Mithridates
    • Sought to reclaim Pontus
    • Was defeated at the battle of Zela
    • was the battle in which Caesar stated Vini Vidi Vici
  47. Battle of Zela
    • Battle in which Julius Caesar defeated King Pharnaces
    • Caesar won the battle
    • Took place in Zile
    • Was commemorated by Caesar stating Vini Vidi Vici
  48. Battle of Thapsus
    • Took place during the Roman Civil War
    • Was between Caesar's troops and the Pompeians
    • Caesar's troops overwhelmed the enemy and slaughtered 10,000 of them
    • Cato who commanded the city of Utica committed suicide rather than surrender to Caesar
  49. Battle of Munda
    • Conflict that ended the Roman Civil War
    • was held between the forces of Pompey and Julius Caesar
    • Pompey's Sons had siezed the city of Cordoba in Spain
    • Caesar lured the Pompeians into battle and when they retreated, won the war
  50. Sextus
    • younger son of Pompey
    • allied with Mark Antony against octavian
    • was defeated by Agrippa
    • one of Caesars greatest opponents
  51. Julian Calendar
    • dating system established by Julius Caesar
    • Was a reform to the Roman Republican Calendar
    • Was created to align the Civic and Solar calendars
  52. Ides of March
    • day in which senators decided to kill Julius Caesar
    • in which caesar was stabbed by 60 senators
    • was led by Brutus and Cassius
    • was caused by Caesar attempting to take the power from those in the Senate
  53. Marcus Junius Brutus
    • Praetor who led a conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar
    • Was a stoic
    • was initially a stauch supporter of caesar but it was Caesars pepetual dicatorship that changed his mind
    • was defeated in battle by Mark Antony and Octavian at Philippi
  54. Gaius Cassius Longinus
    • A Praetor
    • became an active proponent in the plot to assassinate Julius Caesar
    • Served under Crassus early on in his Career
    • after the assassination was defeated by the Second Triumvirate and committed suicide
  55. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
    • One of the members of the second Triumvirate
    • Ruled both hither and further Spain
    • Octavian forced him to Retire
    • Became Triumvir in 43 @ Bologna
  56. Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony)
    • Defeated by Octavian in the last of the civil wars of the Roman Republic
    • General under Julius Caesar
    • served as Triumvir
    • committed suicide after rumor of Cleopatra's death
  57. Gaius Octavius
    • First Roman Emperor
    • Member of the Second Triumvirate
    • Sets up the Principate an autocratic Govt.
    • Was recognizeds as a son of God after Caesar's deification
  58. The Second Triumvirate
    • Had a legal backing
    • composed of Mark Antony, Octavian and Lepidus
    • Were given the right to rule for 5  years
    • were originally tasked with pursuing and punishing Caesars assassins
  59. Battle of Philippi
    • Battle located in the Balkans of Macedonia
    • Antony and Octavian fought against Cassius and Brutus
    • Antony and Octavian Won the battle
    • Antony was the major reason for the victory
  60. Divi Filius
    • Son of God
    • referred to Octavian
    • was given this title because Caesar his adopted father had been deified
  61. Perusine War
    • A civil war of the Republic
    • fought between lucius Antonius and Fulvia in support of Mark Antony
    • was fought against Octavian
    • Occured because Fulvia felt her husband Antony should be the sole ruler of Rome
  62. Battle of Naulochus
    • fought between the fleets of Sextus Pompeius and Marcus Agrippa
    • fought off the coast of Sicily
    • Agrippa won
    • the victory marked the end of the pompeian resistance to the Second Triumvirate
  63. Cleopatra
    • egyptian queen
    • Caesars lover
    • Mark Antony's wife
    • Octavian defeated her and antony at the Battle of Actium
  64. Octavia
    • Sister of Octavian
    • wife of Mark antony
    • was divorced so that antony could marry cleopatra
    • marriage was to ease tension between antony and Octavian
  65. Battle of Actium
    • Naval battle off the Coast of western Greece
    • Battle where octavian became the undisputed leader of the Roman world
    • Came about as a desperation move by antony who was cut off by provisions
    • antony fled the battle with cleopatra
  66. Imperator
    • Emperor
    • designated the sovereigns of the Roman Empire
    • Octavian Augustus was the first
  67. First Settlement
    • Bestowed upon Octavian the name Augustus
    • renamed the month of his birth
    • was to restore the peace of the republic
    • stated that octavian would be elected consul every year
  68. Second Settlement
    • made to increase the authority of Octavius
    • He was recognized by the senate as being superior to any other official
    • took the power of tribune to be renewed annually until his death
    • bestowed upon him the title of Pater Patriae
  69. Princeps
    • First Citizen
    • Held by Augustus
    • was supposed to mean that he restored the republican institutions
    • Actually meant that he had replaced the oligarchy with autocratic rule
  70. Tribunicia Potestas
    • Agrippa shared this power with Augustus
    • Became the mark of a designated successor to the Roman Empire
    • conferred to Augustus by the Senate
    • In 23 BC
  71. Maius Imperium
    • Augustus was granted this by the senate
    • referred to the provinces acquired in Asia Minor
    • were acquired in the 20's BC
    • gave Augustus executive authority over the proconsuls in the provinces
  72. Peter Patriae
    • Father of the country
    • bestowed upon augustus
    • in 2 BC
    • was a title originally given to Romulus
  73. Commentaries on the Gallic War
    • Written by Julius Caesar
    • an autobiography
    • written in Latin
    • description of the battle that took place in the 9 years Caesar spent fighting the Armies of Gaul
  74. Virgil
    • wrote the aenid
    • which tells the Aeneas legend and the founding of Rome
    • A roman Poet
    • Also wrote and alluded to augustus within the work
  75. Ovid
    • Roman Poet
    • was supported by Valerius Corvinus
    • was banished from Rome to Tomis
    • Wrote the Art of Love
  76. Horace
    • Roman Poet
    • Satirist
    • Son of a Freedman
    • wrote Odes and Epistles
  77. Massacre in the Teutoberg Forest AD9
    • Virus sent to the German forest by augustus
    • was an attempt to conquer more territory for Rome
    • Were attacked in Guerrilla style warfare by Armenius
    • 3 legions of Roman soldiers were lost
  78. Res Gestae
    • Acheivements of Augustus
    • Were read at the senate upon his death
    • was to be inscribed upon his mausoleum
    • only 3 copies were ever found
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Roman World Exam 2
Roman world exam 2
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