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What 5 behaviors cause 80 percent of all health problems in the U.S.?
- Excessive Stress
- Sedentary living
- Inadequate nutrition
- Drinking alcohol
What are the top three major causes of death in the U.S.?
- Heart disease
- The ability of the circulatory system to deliver oxygenated blood to the muscles
- The more oxygen delivered, the more work you can perform
The ability to exert a maximal muscular force
The ability to exert sub-maximal muscular force over a period of time
A measure of the range of motion around a specific joint or joints in one's body
The relative proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, etc.) to fat mass in the body.
What are the five health-related components of physical fitness?
- Cardiorespiratory fitness
- Muscular Strength
- Muscular endurance
- Body composition
Accordint to the American College of Sports Medicine Physical Activity guidelines, how much activity should a healthy adult younger than 65 get per week?
- Moderate to intense cardio 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week or
- Vigorously intense cardio 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week and
- 8-10 strength training exercises, 8-12 reps of each exercise, twice a week
The cardiorespiratory system consists of:
- the heart
- the blood vessels
- the respiratory system
What is the function of the cardiorespiratory system?
- Circulates blood through the body, transporting oxygen, nutrients and other key substances to organs and tissues
- Also carries away waste products
How many chambers of the heart?
Four: Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
What is the function of the heart?
- It pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and delivers oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.
- Blood travels through two separate circulatory systems: right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs (pulmanary circulation), left side pumps blood through the rest of the body (systemic circulation)
What is the body's largest artery?
- The aorta
- Blood is pumped from the left ventricle through the aorta for distribution to the rest of the body's blood vessels
- Period of the heart's contraction
- The atria contract first, pumping blood into the ventricles
- Ventricles contract a fraction of a second later, pumping blood to the lungs and body
- Period of the heart's relaxation
- Blood flows into the heart during diastole
- The force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels
- Created by the pumping action of the heart
Carry blood to the heart
- Carry blood away from the heart
- Thick elastic walls that enable them to expand and relax with the volume of blood being pumped through them
- Tiny vessels that deliver oxygen and nutrient rich blood to the tissues and pick up oxygen-poor, waste-laden blood
- Oxygen-poor blood moves from capillaries to small viens, then to larger veins that return it to the heart to repeat the cycle
The right and left coronary arteries branch off the aorta and supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood
Supplies oxygen to the body, carries off carbon dioxide and helps regulate acide produced during metabolism
How is carbon dioxide expelled?
Carbon dioxide passes from blood cells into the alveoli, where it is carried up and out of the lungs (exhaled)
What happens after oxygen reaches the lungs?
Oxygen from inhaled air is passed from the alveoli into blood cells, the oxygenated blood cells return to the heart and are pumped throughout the body
the amount of blood the heart pumps with each beat
How does cardiac output change during exercise?
Increases to 20 or more quarts per minute, versus about 5 quarts per minute at rest
How does blood flow change during exercise?
As much as 85-90 percent of the blood is delivered to working muscles. At rest, about 15-20 percent is distributed to skeletal muscles
How does circulating blood move?
From arteries to arterioles to capillaries in the body's cells
Collateral circulation and exercise
- cardiorespiratory exercise increases capillarization (the number of capillaries that feed and cleanse the body's organs and systems, thus facilitating the efficience of oxygen delivery)
- Exercising muscles develops more capillaries
- ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity
- cardiorespiratory endurance is dependent on strength of the heart and its ability to deliver oxygen to muscle cells on demand
Aerobic means with/without oxygen?
- With oxygen
- Low to moderate intensity that can be carried on for long durations
- Primary energy source is fat
Anaerobic means with/without oxygen?
- Without oxygen
- High intensity, short duration
What are the two anaerobic processes?
- Explosive (Immediate): Lasts 0-10 seconds, relies on ATP for fuel
- Intermediate: Lasts 10 seconds to 2 minutes, relies on glucose to fuel
Maximal oxygen consumption
- VO2Max/MaxVO2/Maximum Oxygen Uptake
- The amount of oxygen consumed by exercising at maximum capacity
- VO2Max = the maximum amount of oxygen in ml/kg/min
What would a very poor VO2 number be?
- Less than 25 (female, 13-19)
- Less than 23 (female, 20-29)
- Less than 35 (male, 13-19)
- Less than 33 (male, 20-29)
What would a poor VO2 number be?
- 25-30 (female, 13-19)
- 24-28 (female, 20-29)
- 36-38 (male, 13-19)
- 33-36 (male, 20-29)
What would fair VO2 numbers be?
- 31-34 (female, 13-19)
- 29-32 (female, 20-29)
- 39-44 (male, 13-19)
- 37-42 (male, 20-29)
Would would good or execellent VO2 numbers be?
- 35-38 good, 39-41 excellent (f, 13-19)
- 33-36 good, 37-41 excellent (f, 20-29)
- 45-50 good, 51-55 excellent (m, 13-19)
- 42-46 good, 47-52 excellent (m, 20-29)
What are three clinical ways of evaluating cariovascular fitness?
- 1. EKG (electrocardiogram), measures the electrical activity of the heart beat
- 2. Blood pressure, indicates resistance in peripheral circulatory system (resistance to flow)
- 3. Cardiac output (amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute), it's a reflection of the strength of the heart
What is the ultimate test of fitness?
- Cardiac output (amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute)
- Formula: CO (ml/min) = HR (beats/min) x SV (ml/beat)
What is the SAID Principle?
- Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands
- If you keep asking, you will get better, if you stop, it will get worse
If we do not use something, we lose it
- diseases of inactivity
- heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes
How often should you exercise to develop cardiorespiratory fitness (overload principle)?
- Minimum: three days a week to improve
- Optimum: five days a week to improve
- To maintain: two days
How intense should your workouts be?
- Minimal 65%
- Optimal 75%
- Maximal 85%
Maximum heart rate
Age-adjusted target heart rate
220 - age x (%intensity)
Exercise threshold concept
Finding what intensity to exercise at
- Allows you to individualize your target heart rate and training zone
- Target Heart Rate = Max. HR - resting HR x % intensity
- 220-age-rhr x.7/.8 + rhr
Heart Rate Reserve
Max HR - Resting HR
Benefits of cardiovascular fitness re: heart structure, function and chemistry?
- Oxygen uptake, stroke volume, cardiac output improvements, lower resting, exercise and post-exercise heart rates (heart beats more efficiently)
- Heart volume (size)
- Collateral circulation (capillarization)
Benefits of cardiovascular fitness re: heart function
- maintains elasticity of arteries
- diameter of blood vessels, larger vessels
- blood volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration
- high density lipoprotein (HDL)
Benefits of cardiovascular fitness relating to disease control and prevention
- Capacity to lower blood pressure
- Control blood fats: triglycerides, cholesterol
- Lowering/reversing atherosclerotic build-up (plaque build up)
- Controlling arteriosclerosis (hardening of arteries)
- Prevention of osteoporosis, type II diabetes
- Maintain and/or improves body composition
- Improved immune system function
- May prevent some cancers
Signs of overstressing your cardiorespiratory system
- Faintess, dizziness
- Musculoskeletal problems
- Weakness or nausea
- Radiating pain in your jaw, chest, shoulder, arm
- Irregular pulse
- Poor recovery after exercise
Can physiological age vary from chronological age?
Yes, as much as 30 years
The ability to exert a maximal muscular force
- without oxygen
- usually explosive (lasting 10 seconds or less)
- intermediate (rely on glucose, lasting up to 2 min)
How is strength determined?
- Cross-sectional size of muscle
- Neural facilitation (the efficiency of the nervous system's ability to activate and contract muscle fibers)
when overloaded (through weight training/progressive resistance), muscle size increases
Muscle size will decrease b/c of lack of activity
The efficiency of the nervous system's ability to activate and contract muscle fibers
To exert force, a muscle recruits one or more motor units to contract. What is a motor unit?
- It's made up of a nerve connected to a number of muscle fibers.
- Small motor units contain slow twitch fibers
- Large motor units contain fast twitch fibers
- Strength training improves the body's ability to recruit motor units (called muscle learning)
What makes up a muscle?
- muscle fibers, connected in muscles
- single muscle has many bundles of fibers and is covered by layers of connective tissue, which hold fibers together
What are muscle fibers made up of?
Muscle fiber types
- slow twitch fibers
- fast twitch fibers
Slow twitch fibers
- relatively fatigue-resistant
- don't contract as rapidly or strongly as fast twitch fibers
- princple energy system that fuels them is aerobic
- more slow-twitch fibers may make you a better distance runner
Fast twitch fibers
- contract more rapidly and forcefully than slow twitch
- fatigue more quickly than slow twitch
- two types - fast glycolytic (explosive)
- fast oxidative glycolytic (intermediate)
- principle male hormone
- appears to make muscles more trainable
- attach muscle to bone
- transmits the force exerted by the muscle
attach bone to bone
closing of a joint
the opening of a joint
What are the four functions a muscle can perform in your body?
- fixating/stablizing muscles
- muscle or muscles that cause or control movement
- muscle most involved
- bicep when flexing
- muscles opposite or opposing the agonist
- in order for the biceps to shorten, the tricep (antagonist) needs to extend
- muscles that contract to counteract or neutralize an undesired action of another contracting muscle
- helpers, neutralizing unwanted motions and keeping movements in a straight line
muscles which hold one body part to allow another active muscle a firm base on which to pull
Types of muscular contractions
- Isotonic (with movement)
- Isometric (without movement)
- Isokinetic (movement with controlled or accomodating resistance)
Two phases of isotonic muscular contraction
- Concentric contraction (muscle shortens, lifting against gravity, like curling up)
- Eccentric contraction (muscle lengthens, lowering weight against gravity, like curling down)
Isometric muscular contraction
- strength development is limited to a specific position or joint angle
- like "lifting" a desk
Isokinetic muscular contraction
- movement with controlled or accomodating resistance
- in theory, pushing as hard as you can through every range of motion
- designed to gain maximum strength throughout the range of motion
- helps progress in resistive exercises
- resistance (load, weight), frequency, duration and rest
how often should you do strength workouts?
- 3 days to gain
- 2 days to maintain
- best results occur when there are at least 48 hours and no more than 96 hours between workouts
the five antigravity muscles
- triceps surae (calves)
- quadriceps femoris (sits on front of femur, responsible for extending the leg at the knee)
- gluteus maximus (hip extensor)
- rectus abdominus (abs - only flexor in group)
- erector spinae (extends spinal column)
- less than 200, desirable
- 200-239, borderline high
- 240 or more, high
- less than 100 optimal
- 100-129 near optimal
- 130-159 borderline high
- 160-189 high
- 190 + very high
- Less than 40 low
- 60 or more high (desirable)
Recommended daily sodium
less than 2400
recommended daily carbs
- 55%, roughly 300 grams
- Fiber, about 25 grams
- less than 10% sugars
Iron daily recommendations
- less than 150 normal
- 150-199 borderline high
- 200-499 high
- 500 very high
Why are women's MVO2s lower than men's?
- Smaller heart for body size
- More body fat percentage than men
- Less hemoglobin (red blood cells) per unit of blood
- Less muscle mass for body size than men
What might a good cardiac output level be in an average person?
- CO (ml/min) = HR (beats/min) + SV (ml/beat)
- An average person has a resting heart rate of 70 beats/minute and a resting stroke volume of 70 mL/beat. The cardiac output for this person at rest is: Cardiac Output = 70 (beats/min) X 70 (mL/beat) = 4900 mL/minute.
- During vigorous exercise, cardiac output can increase up to 7 times as much
What do flexibility exercises help with?
- stretch muscles
- protect against injury
- allow max range of motion for joints
How much flexibility is needed?
- Enough to move effectively and maintain a balanced alignment
- Enough to meet life's demands
What factors determine joint flexibility?
- Bony structure
- Connective tissues (ligaments and tendons)
- Soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin)
Dynamic (re: flexibility)
- Range of motion achieved with rapid movement
- Ballistic stretching (rapid bouncing) is a form of dynamic stretching
Static (re: flexibility)
Range of motion achieved by a slow, steady stretching
A protective mechanism in which the muscle, under rapid stretch, contracts to resist the stretch
stretches to avoid:
- hurdlers stretches
- standing toe touches
underlying causes of low back pain
- poor muscle endurance and lack of strength in the abdominals
- excess body weight
- poor posture and mechanics
- 85 percent of Americans will experience low back pain
Most common nutritional mistakes?
- too much fat * protein * salt * sugar
- too little iron * fiber * calcium
- assuming starch is bad
- relying on vitamins
- falling into diet traps
those that your body cannot manufacture - you have to supply
higher in nutrition, lower in calories
a measure of how the ingestion of particular foods is good to affect your glucose levels
- cehmical unstable molecule that reacts with fats, proteins and DNA, damaging cell membranes and mutating genes
- result of oxygen metabolism, need to be neutralized
- smoke, exhaust fumes, radiation, excess sunlight and certain drugs can increase free radical production
Six major nutrients
- Broken down and used by the body as glucose
- glucose is main energy source for muscles and brain
- 4 calories for every gram of carbs
promotes movement of material through the digestive system, increases stool bulk
- dissolves in water to form a gel-like material
- helps lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels
- promotes growth, maintenance and repair of tissues
- last and least efficient source of energy
- broken down and used by the body as amino acids (9 essential amino acids)
- 4 calories/gram
why is fat (lipids) needed?
- transport fat-soluble vitamins
- second energy source (carbs first)
- energy storage
- cell function
- ingested as triglycerides, broken down and used by the body as fatty acids
- 9 calories/gram of fat
Fats should account for about 30 percent of daily diet. What should breakdown be of different types of fat?
- Saturated (sold at room temp) 10%
- Monounsaturated (liquid at room temp, semi solid in fridge) 10%
- Polyunsaturated (liquid in room temp, fridge) 10 %
- transfat - bad - limit to less than 1% of total calories
Omega 3 & 6 Fatty Acids
- May help lower blood cholesterol
- Contain compounds that decrease blood clotting, blood pressure and plasma triglycerides
Fat soluble vitamins?
Ways to prevent osteoporosis
- adequate calcium intake
- adequate vitamin d intake
- avoid smoking
- stay active - weight bearing activities
How much calcium should you get?
about 1000 mgs a day
what problems does excess sodium cause (for some people)?
- fluid retention, increasing the volume of blood in the circulatory system (more blood volume equals increased blood pressure)
- also bone loss - high levels of sodium cause the body to shed calcium in urine
how many calories per gram of carb?
How many calories per gram of protein?
How many calories per gram of fat?
How many calories per gram of alcohol?
what are water soluble vitamins?
B complex, c
Role of vitamins?
- help regulate metabolism
- help convert fat and carbs to energy
- assist in forming bones and muscle
- bolster immune function
Role of minerals?
- Regulation, function and building
- Catalyst - vitamins can't be assimilated without help of minerals