What 5 behaviors cause 80 percent of all health problems in the U.S.?
What are the top three major causes of death in the U.S.?
The ability of the circulatory system to deliver oxygenated blood to the muscles
The more oxygen delivered, the more work you can perform
The ability to exert a maximal muscular force
The ability to exert sub-maximal muscular force over a period of time
A measure of the range of motion around a specific joint or joints in one's body
The relative proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, etc.) to fat mass in the body.
What are the five health-related components of physical fitness?
Accordint to the American College of Sports Medicine Physical Activity guidelines, how much activity should a healthy adult younger than 65 get per week?
Moderate to intense cardio 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week or
Vigorously intense cardio 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week and
8-10 strength training exercises, 8-12 reps of each exercise, twice a week
The cardiorespiratory system consists of:
the blood vessels
the respiratory system
What is the function of the cardiorespiratory system?
Circulates blood through the body, transporting oxygen, nutrients and other key substances to organs and tissues
Also carries away waste products
How many chambers of the heart?
Four: Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle
What is the function of the heart?
It pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs and delivers oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.
Blood travels through two separate circulatory systems: right side of the heart pumps blood to the lungs (pulmanary circulation), left side pumps blood through the rest of the body (systemic circulation)
What is the body's largest artery?
Blood is pumped from the left ventricle through the aorta for distribution to the rest of the body's blood vessels
Period of the heart's contraction
The atria contract first, pumping blood into the ventricles
Ventricles contract a fraction of a second later, pumping blood to the lungs and body
Period of the heart's relaxation
Blood flows into the heart during diastole
The force exerted by blood on the walls of the blood vessels
Created by the pumping action of the heart
Carry blood to the heart
Carry blood away from the heart
Thick elastic walls that enable them to expand and relax with the volume of blood being pumped through them
Tiny vessels that deliver oxygen and nutrient rich blood to the tissues and pick up oxygen-poor, waste-laden blood
Oxygen-poor blood moves from capillaries to small viens, then to larger veins that return it to the heart to repeat the cycle
The right and left coronary arteries branch off the aorta and supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood
Supplies oxygen to the body, carries off carbon dioxide and helps regulate acide produced during metabolism
How is carbon dioxide expelled?
Carbon dioxide passes from blood cells into the alveoli, where it is carried up and out of the lungs (exhaled)
What happens after oxygen reaches the lungs?
Oxygen from inhaled air is passed from the alveoli into blood cells, the oxygenated blood cells return to the heart and are pumped throughout the body
the amount of blood the heart pumps with each beat
How does cardiac output change during exercise?
Increases to 20 or more quarts per minute, versus about 5 quarts per minute at rest
How does blood flow change during exercise?
As much as 85-90 percent of the blood is delivered to working muscles. At rest, about 15-20 percent is distributed to skeletal muscles
How does circulating blood move?
From arteries to arterioles to capillaries in the body's cells
Collateral circulation and exercise
cardiorespiratory exercise increases capillarization (the number of capillaries that feed and cleanse the body's organs and systems, thus facilitating the efficience of oxygen delivery)
Exercising muscles develops more capillaries
ability to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity
cardiorespiratory endurance is dependent on strength of the heart and its ability to deliver oxygen to muscle cells on demand
Aerobic means with/without oxygen?
Low to moderate intensity that can be carried on for long durations
Primary energy source is fat
Anaerobic means with/without oxygen?
High intensity, short duration
What are the two anaerobic processes?
Explosive (Immediate): Lasts 0-10 seconds, relies on ATP for fuel
Intermediate: Lasts 10 seconds to 2 minutes, relies on glucose to fuel
Maximal oxygen consumption
VO2Max/MaxVO2/Maximum Oxygen Uptake
The amount of oxygen consumed by exercising at maximum capacity
VO2Max = the maximum amount of oxygen in ml/kg/min
What would a very poor VO2 number be?
Less than 25 (female, 13-19)
Less than 23 (female, 20-29)
Less than 35 (male, 13-19)
Less than 33 (male, 20-29)
What would a poor VO2 number be?
25-30 (female, 13-19)
24-28 (female, 20-29)
36-38 (male, 13-19)
33-36 (male, 20-29)
What would fair VO2 numbers be?
31-34 (female, 13-19)
29-32 (female, 20-29)
39-44 (male, 13-19)
37-42 (male, 20-29)
Would would good or execellent VO2 numbers be?
35-38 good, 39-41 excellent (f, 13-19)
33-36 good, 37-41 excellent (f, 20-29)
45-50 good, 51-55 excellent (m, 13-19)
42-46 good, 47-52 excellent (m, 20-29)
What are three clinical ways of evaluating cariovascular fitness?
1. EKG (electrocardiogram), measures the electrical activity of the heart beat
2. Blood pressure, indicates resistance in peripheral circulatory system (resistance to flow)
3. Cardiac output (amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute), it's a reflection of the strength of the heart
What is the ultimate test of fitness?
Cardiac output (amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute)
Formula: CO (ml/min) = HR (beats/min) x SV (ml/beat)
What is the SAID Principle?
Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands
If you keep asking, you will get better, if you stop, it will get worse
If we do not use something, we lose it
diseases of inactivity
heart disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes
How often should you exercise to develop cardiorespiratory fitness (overload principle)?
Minimum: three days a week to improve
Optimum: five days a week to improve
To maintain: two days
How intense should your workouts be?
Maximum heart rate
Age-adjusted target heart rate
220 - age x (%intensity)
Exercise threshold concept
Finding what intensity to exercise at
Allows you to individualize your target heart rate and training zone
Controlling arteriosclerosis (hardening of arteries)
Prevention of osteoporosis, type II diabetes
Maintain and/or improves body composition
Improved immune system function
May prevent some cancers
Signs of overstressing your cardiorespiratory system
Weakness or nausea
Radiating pain in your jaw, chest, shoulder, arm
Poor recovery after exercise
Can physiological age vary from chronological age?
Yes, as much as 30 years
The ability to exert a maximal muscular force
usually explosive (lasting 10 seconds or less)
intermediate (rely on glucose, lasting up to 2 min)
How is strength determined?
Cross-sectional size of muscle
Neural facilitation (the efficiency of the nervous system's ability to activate and contract muscle fibers)
when overloaded (through weight training/progressive resistance), muscle size increases
Muscle size will decrease b/c of lack of activity
The efficiency of the nervous system's ability to activate and contract muscle fibers
To exert force, a muscle recruits one or more motor units to contract. What is a motor unit?
It's made up of a nerve connected to a number of muscle fibers.
Small motor units contain slow twitch fibers
Large motor units contain fast twitch fibers
Strength training improves the body's ability to recruit motor units (called muscle learning)
What makes up a muscle?
muscle fibers, connected in muscles
single muscle has many bundles of fibers and is covered by layers of connective tissue, which hold fibers together
What are muscle fibers made up of?
Muscle fiber types
slow twitch fibers
fast twitch fibers
Slow twitch fibers
don't contract as rapidly or strongly as fast twitch fibers
princple energy system that fuels them is aerobic
more slow-twitch fibers may make you a better distance runner
Fast twitch fibers
contract more rapidly and forcefully than slow twitch
fatigue more quickly than slow twitch
two types - fast glycolytic (explosive)
fast oxidative glycolytic (intermediate)
principle male hormone
appears to make muscles more trainable
attach muscle to bone
transmits the force exerted by the muscle
attach bone to bone
closing of a joint
the opening of a joint
What are the four functions a muscle can perform in your body?
muscle or muscles that cause or control movement
muscle most involved
bicep when flexing
muscles opposite or opposing the agonist
in order for the biceps to shorten, the tricep (antagonist) needs to extend
muscles that contract to counteract or neutralize an undesired action of another contracting muscle
helpers, neutralizing unwanted motions and keeping movements in a straight line
muscles which hold one body part to allow another active muscle a firm base on which to pull
Types of muscular contractions
Isotonic (with movement)
Isometric (without movement)
Isokinetic (movement with controlled or accomodating resistance)
Two phases of isotonic muscular contraction
Concentric contraction (muscle shortens, lifting against gravity, like curling up)
Eccentric contraction (muscle lengthens, lowering weight against gravity, like curling down)
Isometric muscular contraction
strength development is limited to a specific position or joint angle
like "lifting" a desk
Isokinetic muscular contraction
movement with controlled or accomodating resistance
in theory, pushing as hard as you can through every range of motion
designed to gain maximum strength throughout the range of motion
helps progress in resistive exercises
resistance (load, weight), frequency, duration and rest
how often should you do strength workouts?
3 days to gain
2 days to maintain
best results occur when there are at least 48 hours and no more than 96 hours between workouts
the five antigravity muscles
triceps surae (calves)
quadriceps femoris (sits on front of femur, responsible for extending the leg at the knee)
gluteus maximus (hip extensor)
rectus abdominus (abs - only flexor in group)
erector spinae (extends spinal column)
less than 200, desirable
200-239, borderline high
240 or more, high
less than 100 optimal
100-129 near optimal
130-159 borderline high
190 + very high
Less than 40 low
60 or more high (desirable)
Recommended daily sodium
less than 2400
recommended daily carbs
55%, roughly 300 grams
Fiber, about 25 grams
less than 10% sugars
Roughly 50 grams
Iron daily recommendations
15-18 mg women
10 mg men
less than 150 normal
150-199 borderline high
500 very high
Why are women's MVO2s lower than men's?
Smaller heart for body size
More body fat percentage than men
Less hemoglobin (red blood cells) per unit of blood
Less muscle mass for body size than men
What might a good cardiac output level be in an average person?
CO (ml/min) = HR (beats/min) + SV (ml/beat)
An average person has a resting heart rate of 70 beats/minute and a resting stroke volume of 70 mL/beat. The cardiac output for this person at rest is: Cardiac Output = 70 (beats/min) X 70 (mL/beat) = 4900 mL/minute.
During vigorous exercise, cardiac output can increase up to 7 times as much
What do flexibility exercises help with?
protect against injury
allow max range of motion for joints
How much flexibility is needed?
Enough to move effectively and maintain a balanced alignment
Enough to meet life's demands
What factors determine joint flexibility?
Connective tissues (ligaments and tendons)
Soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin)
Dynamic (re: flexibility)
Range of motion achieved with rapid movement
Ballistic stretching (rapid bouncing) is a form of dynamic stretching
Static (re: flexibility)
Range of motion achieved by a slow, steady stretching
A protective mechanism in which the muscle, under rapid stretch, contracts to resist the stretch
stretches to avoid:
standing toe touches
underlying causes of low back pain
poor muscle endurance and lack of strength in the abdominals
excess body weight
poor posture and mechanics
85 percent of Americans will experience low back pain
Most common nutritional mistakes?
too much fat * protein * salt * sugar
too little iron * fiber * calcium
assuming starch is bad
relying on vitamins
falling into diet traps
those that your body cannot manufacture - you have to supply
higher in nutrition, lower in calories
a measure of how the ingestion of particular foods is good to affect your glucose levels
cehmical unstable molecule that reacts with fats, proteins and DNA, damaging cell membranes and mutating genes
result of oxygen metabolism, need to be neutralized
smoke, exhaust fumes, radiation, excess sunlight and certain drugs can increase free radical production
Six major nutrients
Broken down and used by the body as glucose
glucose is main energy source for muscles and brain
4 calories for every gram of carbs
promotes movement of material through the digestive system, increases stool bulk
dissolves in water to form a gel-like material
helps lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels
promotes growth, maintenance and repair of tissues
last and least efficient source of energy
broken down and used by the body as amino acids (9 essential amino acids)
why is fat (lipids) needed?
transport fat-soluble vitamins
second energy source (carbs first)
ingested as triglycerides, broken down and used by the body as fatty acids
9 calories/gram of fat
Fats should account for about 30 percent of daily diet. What should breakdown be of different types of fat?
Saturated (sold at room temp) 10%
Monounsaturated (liquid at room temp, semi solid in fridge) 10%
Polyunsaturated (liquid in room temp, fridge) 10 %
transfat - bad - limit to less than 1% of total calories
Omega 3 & 6 Fatty Acids
May help lower blood cholesterol
Contain compounds that decrease blood clotting, blood pressure and plasma triglycerides
Fat soluble vitamins?
Ways to prevent osteoporosis
adequate calcium intake
adequate vitamin d intake
stay active - weight bearing activities
How much calcium should you get?
about 1000 mgs a day
what problems does excess sodium cause (for some people)?
fluid retention, increasing the volume of blood in the circulatory system (more blood volume equals increased blood pressure)
also bone loss - high levels of sodium cause the body to shed calcium in urine
how many calories per gram of carb?
How many calories per gram of protein?
How many calories per gram of fat?
How many calories per gram of alcohol?
what are water soluble vitamins?
B complex, c
Role of vitamins?
help regulate metabolism
help convert fat and carbs to energy
assist in forming bones and muscle
bolster immune function
Role of minerals?
Regulation, function and building
Catalyst - vitamins can't be assimilated without help of minerals