- *To infer that some variable or IV has an effect or cause
- a change in a DV there must be 3 criteria present:
1. There must be an association
between the casual variable & the effect variable.
2. The cause must precede
3. The relationship must not be explainable by another variable (extraneous variable).
Most nursing research is not experimental. Most is non experimental that considers relationships of one variable to another.
These types of studies are required before an experimental study can be done.