Human Geography

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  1. industrial and energy resources
    oil, natural gas, and coal are unevenly distributed across the globe, most of the world's core economies are reasonable well off in terms of energy production, the major exceptions being japan and parts of Europe. Because of this unevenness energy has become an important component of trade. Industrial resources are focused in Russia, the US, Canada, South Africa, and Australia. 
  2. Cultivable land
    More than half the Earth's surface is unsuitable for any productive form of arable farming. Poor soils, short growing seasons, arid climates, mountainous terrain, forests, and conservation limit the extent of agricultural land across much of the globe. Being concentrated in Europe, west-central Russia, eastern North america, and Australian littoral, Lattin America, India, eastern China, and parts of sub-saharan Africa. technological change- resources are tied to technologies as technologies change, so do resource requirements and the geography of economic development is "rewritten"
  3. obstacles in the path of sustainable development
    The continued heavy reliance upon fossil fuels as the fundamental source of energy for economic development, the rate of demographic growth in peripheral is feasable only if population size and growth are in harmony with the changing productive capacity of the ecosystem, the inadequacy of institiuational requires economic, financial, and fiscal decisions to be fully integrated with environmental and ecological decisions.
  4. primary activities
     those concerned directly with natural resources of any kind, they include agriculture, mining, fishing, and forestry
  5. secondary activities-
    those that process, transform, fabricate, or assemble the raw materials deerived from primary activites or that reassemble, refinish, or package manufactured goods
  6. tertiary activities
    those involving the sale and exchange of goods and services; they include warehousing, retail stores, personal services such as hairdressing, commercial services such as accounting, advertising, and entertainment
  7. quaternary activities
    those dealing with the handling and processing of knowledge and information.
  8. newly industrializing countries
    countries that were formerly peripheral within the world-system, that have acquired a significant industrial sector.
  9. characteristics of world trade
    Western Europe, together with some former European colonies in Africa, South Asia, the Caribbean, and Australasia; North America together with some Latin American states; the countries of the former Soviet world-empire; and Japan, together with other East Asian states and the oil exporting states of Saudi Arabia and Bahrain
  10. Autarky versus dependency
    Autarky is the countries that do not contribute significantly to the flows of imports and exports that are constitute the geography of trade. these are typically smaller peripheral countries such as Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, Samoa, and Tanzania. Dependency involves a high level of reliance by a country on foreign enterprises, investment, or technology
  11. Import substitution versus export led development model
    import substitution is the establishment of a new role in the international division of labor, moving away from a specialization in primary commodities toward a more diversified manufacturing base. Export led development model-\
  12. terms of trade and international debt
    terms of trade are determined by the ratio of the prices at which exports and imports are exchanged. these are often stacked against the producers of primary goods. International debt- for every 1 dollar that developing countries receive in aid they end up having to pay 5 dollars in debt service payments to core countries.
  13. fair trade
    a global network of producers traders, marketers, advocates, and consumers focused on building equitable trading relationships between consumers and the world's most economically disadvantaged artisans and farmers.
  14. Rostow's stages of economic development (developmentalism)
    Each developed region or countries might be thought of as progressing from early stages of development, with a heavy reliance on primary activities ( and relatively low levels of prosperity_ through a phase of industrialization and on to a "mature" stage of postindustrial development (with a diversified economic structure and relatively high levels of prosperity)
  15. Frank's dependency theory
    argues that the world economy has been unequally structured since Europeans first ventured out into the world in the sixteenth century. That development and underdevelopment are reverse sides of the same process "Development somewhere requires under-development somewhere else"
  16. cumulative causation
    refers to the spiraling buildup of advantages that occurs in specific geographic settings as a result of the development of external economies, agglomeration effects, and localization economies.
  17. creative destruction
    involves the withdrawal of investments from activities (and regions) that yield low rates of profit in order to reinvest in new activities (and new regions)
  18. new and old international division of labor
    new- resulted from 3 changes...the US has declined as an industrial producer, 2nd related change is that manufacturing production has been decentralized from the world's core regions to semi-peripheral and peripheral countries. 3rd is that new specializations have emerged within the core regions of the world-system: high-tech manufacturing and producer services)
  19. new information technologies
    based on a combination of innovations, including solar energy, robotics, microelectronics, biotechnology, and digital telecommunications and information systems
  20. global consumer markets
    a new and materialistic international culture has taken root, in which people save less, borrow more, defer parenthood, and indulge in affordable luxuries that are marketed as symbols of style and distinctiveness.
  21. international finance
    the emergence of global banking and globally integrated financial markets
  22. Fordism versus flexible specialization-
    Fordism is based on assembly line techniques and scientific management, together with mass consumption, based on higher wages and sophisticated advertising techniques. Flexible specialization involves flexibility both within firms and between them. New technologies allow greater deal of flexibility
  23. export-processing zones
    small areas where governments create especially favorable investment and trading conditions in order to attract export-oriented industries
  24. consequences of entry of retail chains-
     personal well-being and to health care systems, fast food low paying service sector has become an increasingly significant component of the economy
  25. new geographies of office employment
     the geographic decentralization of office employment. relocated from metropolitian and business district locations to small town and suburban locations. Internationally this has taken place through offshore locations in order to save money in labor costs. International outsourcing also major problem as it involves routine procedures  India has become the most successful exporters of outsources service activities ranging from call centers and business process activities to advanced IT services.
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Human Geography
2012-06-19 01:46:04
Human Geography Test2

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