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A Greek city was called this. It is where the word "Politics" orginate
Type of Gorvenment ruled by One
Type of Government ruled by "few"
Type of Government "rule by many"
What year did the Roman Empire fall?
Right to self rule/ freedom / Independence
Magna Carter (1215)
- 1. Limits the Power of the King
- 2. Demands participation in government if King wants to tax them
A legal system based on customs, traditions, and precendents
Ancient legal custom of peers judging court trials and legal authority based on people
He argued in order to avoid dictatorship, government must separate its powers into Judicial, Executive and Legislative branches
Montesquieu's "Spirit of the Laws" (1748)
An English philosopher who wrote the Colonial Constitutions of the Carolinas - Government exist only to preserve "Life, Liberty, and Property"
John Locke (1689)
The Four types of Civic virtues according to William Galston
- 1. Loyalty/Law-Abidingness
- 2. Independence/Open-Mindness
- 3. Economic virtues - Paying Bills/Avoiding Debt
- 4. Political Virtues - Interest in others/office
What entails the 1st Amendment
- Freedom of Religion & Expression
- Expression involves Freedom of:
- 1. Speech
- 2. Press
- 3. Assemble
- 4. Petition against the government
What does the second amendment entail?
The Right to bear arms - gave all citizens the right to protect themselves
What does the 3rd Amendment entail?
Ban the British to quarantine soldiers to the homes of American civilians
Why do you think Thomas Jefferson linked education to the geographic size of a population?
It allows each area to focus and be more accountable for a successful result
Which group had the right to vote in ancient Anthens? Which group did not?
- Males had the right to vote.
- Women, Slaves and forigners did NOT.
According to the Athenian leader Pericles, was poverty a hinderance to serving society through politics?
No. The law gives equal justice to all in their private differences
Did Plato have an unfavorable view of democracy?
No. Plato believed the most knowledgable people should lead
Why were the "philospher-Kings" important for Plato?
He believed the most Knowledgable should be leaders
What two groups did Aristotle think would make democarcy somewhat possible?
- 1. The Crowd
- 2. Property owners
According to Plato and Aristotle respectively, what important things does majority lack?
- 1. Sufficient Knowledge (Plato)
- 2. Suffiicient Goodness (Aristotle)
Did Aristotle think a political society should be geographically large?
No. It should be no onger than a 3 day walk from the center
Explain the 3 types of constitutions that Aristotle considered?
- 1. Rule by one - Emperor
- 2. Rule by few - The Property owners
- 3. Rule by many - The Crowd
Explain Cicero's theory of a "mixed constitution"
- 1. Plebs - Representing interest of the people
- 2. Executive - Royal Power
- 3. Aristocratic - deliberate Power
How did ancient Greek define the concept of
The cultivation of Human excellence
Contrast the two cities theorized by Augustine
- 1. City of God abide by eternal laws
- 2. Earthly cities abide by temporal laws
Define the 4 types of law as theorized by Thomas Aquinas
- 1. Human Law - local Law
- 2. Eternal Law - God's Law
- 3. Natural Law - aspect fo eternal law that relates to morality and human behavior
- 4. Devine Law - judgement in the afterlife resulting in rewards or punsihment
What is a major difference between Machiavelli and ancient thinkers?
Machiavelli tells his princes how to rule based on how thing really are in oppose to how things should be
What is Machiavelli's advice for how a ruler should rule?
- Be Decietful, Manipulative and Vicious
- People should have a healthy respect for the powerful
What were the reasons that inspired local princes to support Martin Luther King against the pope?
Because alot of thier land belonged to the Catholic Church
How does Hobbes view the "State of Stature"?
War of All against All - Life is beastly, brutal and Short
Describe the concept of "Social Contract" as theorized by Hobbes.
A contract with a state in which we agree to obey the laws if we are provided with peace and security
What type of givernment did Hobbes prefer?
Monarchy - because of it's ability to make quick decisions
Describe the "Social Contract" theorized by John Locke
Each person must be able to protect themselves and their property
How did Locke suggest dealing with differences of religion?
Government should Tolerate religion. Religious Tolerance
According to Locke, when does a society have the "Right to Revolution"?
If a King systematically violates the laws of the land
Compare and contrast Locke's and Hobbes' view on Liberty
Hobbes - Freedom from interference by other persons
Locke - Freedom from interference from exercising our natural rights for Life, Liberty, and Property
What does the tradition of "Classical Liberalism" emphasize?
A tradition that emphasizes individual Liberty and Small government
How does Rousseau view the "State of Nature"?
Men and Women enjoy idleness and the pleasure of thier own existance. We have natural sympathy for the suffering but also have a sense of self-preservation
Compare and Contrast Rousseau's and Locke's view on Property
- Rousseau - Property entilement creates inequality
- Locke - Right to protect property
Explain what Rousseau meant by saying that people should be "forced to be free"
People should be punished if they do not conform to self-legislation
What was the "Reign of Terror"?
Execution of Anti-Revoultionist by public decapitaion and executions in France from 1793-1794
What is the "Soviet Union"?
The Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics consisting of 15 subnational Soviet Republics of communist that violated human Rights during 1922-1991
A centralized government that does not want outside opinion and exercises dictorial control over its citizens
Two major reason that English colonist settled in North America
- 1. Religious Freedom
- 2. Economic Opportunity
Describe the difference between England's official policy towards the North American colonies before and after 1763
Before 1763 - Left the colonies alone to govern themselves
After 1763 - Try to control the migration of colonist and attempted to govern them directly
Why did England's colonial policy change after 1763?
England forbid colonist from settling West due to conflict from Indians and France
How did the Committees of Correspondence help unite the Colonies?
Each colony oragnized a committe to communicate with other colonies to share information about England
According to Thomas Paine's "Commons Sense" pamphlet, why is it incorrect to say America is an "English Nation"?
- 1. An island should not be able to rule a Continent
- 2. America was influenced by all of Europe and not just England
- 3. A Mother country would not mistreat an offspring country
- 4. England would drag America into unecessary wars
According to Edwards, what are some of the challenges America has faced and survived which could suggest that the country is a "miracle"?
- 1. Racial & Ethnic division
- 2. Civil Wars
- 3. World Wars
What is meant by "Ordered Liberty"?
People are encouraged to utilize their freedom that is granted by the constitution
What 5 Cities did Russel Kirk examine to trace the roots of American order and why?
- 1. London - Law & Liberty
- 2. Athens - Western Philosophy
- 3. Philadelphia - Law & Liberty
- 4. Jurusalem - God's purpose
- 5. Rome - Laws and Social Awareness
What contribution did the Greeks make in view of science?
Political Self Awareness
What sort of things did the Romans emphasize?
Political Admistration and Stability
What were the major political experiments by the British during the Middle Ages that contributed to the American system of government?
Magna Carter (1215) - Limits the power of the government (King). No Taxation without Representation
Glorious Revolution of 1689
According to Kirk what is political order based on, reflect and mean?
- 1. Customs
- 2. Morals
- 3. Beliefs
In what year was the Magna Carter written
What important political and legal principles did the Magna Cater represent?
- 1. Limits the Power of the Government (King)
- 2. No Taxation without Representation
- 3. The law is Supreme and all must obey it
According to Kirk, what social traits developed because of the Protestant Reformation?
- 1. Self- Reliance
- 2. Self - Examination
- 3. Effort
- 4. Democracy
According to Kirk, what political traits developed because of the Protestant Reformation?
- 1. Law
- 2. Liberty
- 3. Religious Tolerance
According to Hobbes, what are and are not an individual's motives in society?
- Individual motives - Self interest and Fear
- Individual motives are NOT - Love and Loyality
In what ways did the Founders of the American Republic differ from Locke?
Locke focuses on Life, Liberty and Property
American Republic focuses on Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Hapiness through Legislation
According to Kirk, what is the differences between the social contracts proposed by Locke and Burke?
Locke - Freedom from interference to exercis our natural rights of Life, Liberty and Property.
Burke - suggest that we all participate in a society ordained by God
According to Kirk, what conflicts did the U.S. constitution attempt to resolve?
- 1. Greviances against the Kings
- 2. Justification for political seperation
What 3 challenges did delegates who were designing the U.S. constitution face?
- 1. Upholding order without reducing Liberty
- 2. Produce a Strong Nation without reducing States
- 3. Provide a Commander-in-Chief without producing a Dictator
What was the number of original American States?
A political association with effective sovereignty over a geographic area that represents a population
The first attempt at a Constitution.
1. Preserve the unity of the states together
2. Preserve each states own full soverignty
The Articles of Confederation
How did the Articles of Confederation reflect the eatly American mistrust of a centralized government
It left most of the power to the states
Who was Daniel Shay and what was the Shay's rebellion?
Daniel Shay led an army of armed rebellion of farmers in Massachusetts to print their own money
How might the Shay's Rebellion have lead to the abandonment of the Articles of Confedration and the adoption of a new Constitution?
The Articles of Confederation had a weak militatry. No commander-in-chief
Under this Plan:
1. Bi-cameral (Two Houses) Legistlature
2. Executive chosen by the Legislature
3. Legislature districtes would be based on population size
The Virginia Plan
What was the New Jersey Plan?
- 1. Upper House consist of 2 Senators from each State
- 2. Lower House consist of Represenatives based on population size
Under this Plan:
1. Monarchy and Nobility
2. Executive and Senators would be elected by special groups (Not public)
3. State Governers apponited by National Government
The Hamilton Plan
In this Comprimise, slaves were considered 3/5 Human beings?
The 3/5 Compromise
In this Compromise, a plan was sponserd by Conetticut to incorporate aspects of both the NJ and VA Plan
The Great Comprimise
Supported the Constitution and a stronger Nation
Supported Sate Auntonomy, Sovereignty and wanted to return to the Articles of Confedration
An 85 Seeries article written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madsion to convince the voters to support the Constitution
The Federalist Papers
What does Centralization mean?
Centralization favors a stronger government with a centralized government
Favors stronger states, autonomy, sovereignty and less power to a unionized government.
The First 10 Amendments of the Constitution that specify individual and State rights
The Bill of Rights
Why was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?
To appeal to the the Anti-Federalist
Compare and contrast the Articles of Confedration and the U.S. Constitution
Articles of Confederation focus on Sate sovereignty by seperation while the U.S. Constitution focuses on United States
What was the Whiskey Rebellion?
A Rebellion against Whiskey Tax which charged large distiller 6 cents a gallon and small distillers 9 cents a gallon.
What were the reasons Alexander Hamilton wanted to tax Whiskey?
- 1. Raise revenue to pay national debt
- 2. Assert the power of the New Government
- 3. Social Discipline
According to Judge Learned Hand, where does "liberty" truly lie?
Liberty lies in the hearts of men and women
Any number of citizens that are against the interest of the community
According to James Madison, what are two ways of removing the causes of faction?
- 1. Destroying Liberty
- 2. Giving every citizen the same opinion
Which does Madison think gvernment should be designed to do: Remove the cause or control the effects?
Control the Effect
Does James Madison prefer pure/direct democracy or representative/indirect democracy?
Representative/indirect democracy allows a sharing of power. No single faction should have absolute power.
Describe Madsion's opinion of theorietical politicians and the possiblilty of acheiving perfect equality in society?
Theoretical Politicians believe that pefect equaility can be achieved in society if everyone had equal political rights
What's James Madison's view on a large Republic?
Large Republic would be a better safe guard against any single group trying to take over small states
According to James Madison, how should a government be aranged/organized to preserve people's liberty?
- 1. Checkes and Balances
- 2. Seperation of Powers
How does James Madison explain the relationship between human nature and government?
- 1. Human nature should be used to control the abuse of Government.
- 2. The Government should be allowed to control the governed
How does James Madison consider the possiblity of the relationships between men and angels in government?
If men were angels, No government would be necessary because men would be able to govern themselves
Different governments will control each other, at the same time each will be controlled by itself
What is the difference between a "direct democracy" and an "indirect democracy"?
Direct democracy - Rule by the People
Indirect Democracy - Rule by few whom are appointed by the people
Kings could trace thier bloodline to Adam
Divine Right of the King
According to Locke. Each Man should be able to protect their own property
State of Nature
According to Locke, What was the purpose of government
Government must exist only to preserve Life, Liberty and Property
All Men are free and equal. Government must exist only to preserve Life, Liberty and Property
John Locke - Social Contract