Exam 2: ANS

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brau2308
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159359
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Exam 2: ANS
Updated:
2012-06-19 14:37:57
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anatomy ans
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review of 6/15 lecture on ANS for exam 2
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  1. Autonomic Nervous System aka:
    Visceral Motor System
  2. When you think ANS think...
    MOTOR!
  3. What functions are controlled by the ANS?
    automatic, involuntary functions
  4. How many divisions of the ANS are there?
    2
  5. What are the two divisions of the ANS?
    • Parasympathetic Division
    • Sympathetic Division 
  6. What is the function of the Parasympathetic division of the ANS?
    maintains homeostasis (a stable physiological state)
  7. What type of situations is the Parasymphathetic division of the ANS used?
    normal, non-stressful events
  8. What is the function of the Sympathetic division of the ANS?
    prepares for stressful situations
  9. What type of situations is the Sympathetic division of the ANS used?
    "fight or flight" reactions
  10. What kind of neurons comprises the ANS?
    motor
  11. What structures do the motor neurons of the ANS innervate?
    • cardiac muscle (in heart)
    • smooth muscle (in most hollow organs)
    • glands (both endocrine and exocrine)  
  12. How are the motor neurons of the ANS organized?
    in a two-neuron chain between the CNS and the effector (target) organ
  13. Where is the nerve cell body of the first motor neuron of the ANS found?
    in the CNS
  14. What is the first motor neuron of the ANS in the CNS known as?
    a preganglionic neuron
  15. Where is the nerve cell body of the second motor neuron of the ANS found?
    in a ganglion in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  16. What is the second motor neuron of the ANS in the PNS known as?
    a postganglionic neuron
  17. What does GVE stand for?
    geneal viseral efferent
  18. The motor neurons of the GVE go to what structures?
    visera
  19. What is the Sympathetic Division of the ANS known as?
    thorcolumbar outflow
  20. Where does the Sympathetic Division of the ANS orginate?
    spinal cord levels T1-L2
  21. Which horn of the spinal cord is at spinal cord levels T1-L2?
    lateralhorn
  22. Where are prganglionic nerve cell bodies of the Sypmathetic division located?
    in the intermediolateral (IML) cell column
  23. Preganglionic nerve fibers of the Sympathetic division exit the CNS via which nerve roots and enter where?
    • exit via ventral spinal nerve roots
    • enter spinal nerves T1-L2 
  24. Which communicating rami do preganglionic nerve fibers of the sympathetic division pass through?
    white communicating rami
  25. How many pairs of white communicating rami are present in the sympathetic division?
    14 pairs
  26. What are the 14 pairs of white communicating rami associated with?
    spinal nerves T1-L2
  27. What are the 3 options for the preganglionic nerve fibers of the sympathetic division once they enter the sympathetic chain ganglia?
    • 1. synapse with postganglionic neurons at the same level
    • 2. ascend to a higher level or descend to a lower level to synapse (if needed outside of T1-L2)
    • 3. continue on to a collateral ganglion in the abdominal or pelvic cavity before synapsing   
  28. How does a preganglionic nerve fiber of the Sympathetic division get to a collateral ganglion?
    via splanchnic nn.
  29. Reminder: what does the GSE supply?
    soma; skeletal muscles
  30. What is the sympathetic chain ganglia?
    bilateral structures located adjacent to (parallel) the vertebral column 
  31. Where do the sympathetic chain ganglia extend to?
    vertically from base of skull to coccyx (on both sides of vertebral column)
  32. What connects the sympathetic chain ganglia to the spinal nerves?
    • white communicating rami
    • gray communicating rami 
  33. Do any spinal nerves go to body cavities?
    NO
  34. Are gray communicating rami associated with prganglionic or postganglionic neurons?
    postganglionic
  35. Are white communicating rami associated with preganglionic or postganglionic neurons?
    preganglionic
  36. How many pairs of gray communicating rami are there?
    31 pairs
  37. What are the 31 pairs of gray communicating rami associated with?
    all spinal nerves
  38. Is the Visceal Reflex Arc part of the ANS?
    NO
  39. What types of neurons are required for the visceral reflex arc?
    sensory coming from viscera
  40. Are there motor neurons in dorsal nerve roots?
    no, only sensory
  41. What are the components of the Visceral Reflex Arc?
    • Sensory neuron -General Visceral Afferent (GVA)
    • Connecting neuron (in spinal cord)
    • Two motor neurons (GVE with pre/postganglionic neurons)  
  42. What are the two portions of the Parasympathetic division of the ANS?
    • cranial
    • sacral 
  43. Where does the cranial portion of the parasympathetic division originate?
    in brain stem
  44. Where do preganglionic cranial parasympathetic neurons originate?
    brain stem motor nuclei
  45. What cranial nerves is the brain stem motor nuclei associated with?
    CN III, VII, IX, and X
  46. Where are preganglionic nerve fibers of the cranial parasympathetic division distributed to?
    • cranial region in conjunction with 4 parasympathetic ganglia
    • thoracic and abdominal viscera
  47. The preganglionic nerve fibers of the cranial parasympathetic division are distributed to the crainal region in conjunction with four parasympathetic ganglia that are associated with which cranial nerves?
    CN III, VII (two ganglia) and IX
  48. The preganglionic nerve fibers of the cranial parasympathetic division are distributed to the thoracic and abdominal viscera via:
    CN X
  49. Where does the preganglionic nerve fiber of the cranial parasympathetic division synapse with the viscera via CN X?
    walls of target organs
  50. What is the name of CN X?
    Vagus nerve
  51. What does the name "vagus" imply about the vagus nerve?
    wanders from place to place
  52. Does the vagus nerve (CN X) supply the GI tract?
    does not supply all of GI tract, just some
  53. Which part of the GI tract does the vagus nerve (CN X) supply?
    everything up to the splenic flexure
  54. Where are the short postganglionic fibers of the cranial parasympathetic division contained?
    entirely within walls of target organs
  55. Where is the sacral portion of the parasympathetic division located?
    spinal cord levels S2-4
  56. The preganglionic nerve fibers of the sacral parasympathetic division exit the CNS via which nerve roots and neter what?
    • exit via ventral spinal nerve roots of S2-4
    • enter pelvic splanchnic nerves  
  57. What is another name for the pelvic splanchnic nerves?
    nervi erigentes
  58. Where are the pelvic splanchnic nerves distributed to?
    pelvic viscera and external genitalia
  59. Where do the preganglionic fibers of th sacral parasympathetic division symapse with short postganglionic neurons?
    in the walls of target organs
  60. The postganglionic neurons of the sacral parasympathetic division are contained entirely within:
    the walls of target organs
  61. What are neurotransmitters?
    chemicals released at synapses between pre- and postganglionic neurons and between postganglioic neurons and effector organs
  62. What hormone gives the adrenaline rush?
    epinephrine
  63. Epinephrine has the same physiological effect as what other hormone?
    norepinephrin
  64. The parasympathetic preganglionic neuron releases which neurotransmitter?
    acetylcholine
  65. The parasympathetic postganglionic neuron releases which neurotransmitter?
    atylcholine
  66. The sympathetic preganglionic neuron releases which neurotransmitter?
    Acetylcholine
  67. The sympathetic postganglionic neuron releases which neurotransmitter?
    norepinephrin (NE)
  68. The sympathetic preganglionic neurons to sweat glands releases which neurotransmitter?
    acetylcholine
  69. The sympathetic postganglionic neurons to sweat glands release which neurotransmitter?
    acetylcholine
  70. The sympathetic preganglionic neurons to the suprarenal medulla release which neurotransmitter?
    acetylcholine
  71. What does the suprarenal medulla secrete?
    epinephrine into blood stream
  72. What is a ganglion?
    collection of nerve cell bodies in PNS
  73. What is an autonomic ganglion?
    where two neurons synapse
  74. The splanchnic nerves connect to:
    collateral ganglioin
  75. The pelvic splanchnic nerves are associated with which spinal nerves?
    S2-4

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