3. Self report
*Interviews can be face to face or telephone.
- are paper/pencil or computerized & are used to gather the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs & feelings of participants. Questions used can be of various types:
1. Open-ended: participants use their own words.
- 2. Close-ended which have fixed number
- of responses. Types:
Likert-type scales: strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree.
Semantic differential Good 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Bad
*Can be costly to hire interviewers.
*Can be in a group or individual.
*Much work to analyze data.
*Allows the researcher to ask for clarity or more depth.
*Response rate is always high which aids in ↓bias.
*Easier for participants who cannot fill out a questionnaire.
- *The interviewer is aware of who is providing the
*Interviewer can change the order of the questions.
*Allows for richer & more complex data to be collected.
*Can be costly if the sample is large.
*Low response rates.
*Time consuming to analyze large amounts of data.
*Tend to be general & lack depth of a concept.
*Can reach a large number of people.
*Reminders can be sent out again if response rate is low.
*A large variety of data can be collected.
*Data can be used for a variety of purposes re: more than one study can utilize the same data set.
*Computerized methods have a low cost & ↑flexibility for participants.