4130 Chapter 13: Data Collection Methods

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4130 Chapter 13: Data Collection Methods
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Data Collection Methods
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  1. Chapter 13: Data Collection Methods
  2. Data Collection Methods: should be objective & systematic
    objective
    systematic 
    *To a large extent, the success of a research study depends on the quality of the data collection methods chosen & implemented.

    *Data collected should be objective & systematic.

    *Objective meaning data is not influenced by the collector.

    *Systematic meaning the data is collected the same way by each person doing the collection. 
  3. Researcy Study Definitions
    conceptual definition
    operational definition 
    *Conceptual definition—derived from the literature, the accepted definition of a concept.

    *Operational definition—translates the conceptual definition into behaviour or verbalizations that can be measured.

    *When critiquing a report assess how the researcher operationalizes or measures the concept being studied.
  4. Goodness of fit??
    -a fit must exist between the research. a criteria 
    *A fit must exist between the research:

    purpose

    design

    research question(s) or hypotheses

    conceptual & operational definitions

    data collection method

    =The degree to which this is done is called the goodness of fit. 
  5. Data Collection starts early
    during literature review
    *The selection of the method of data collection starts with the literature review.

    • *This provides clues to instrumentation or what tools
    • will be used to operationalize the concept of study.

    *The researcher considers if measurement tools used in other studies would be appropriate for their study.

    *The researcher next formulates a conceptual definition.

    *A tool is chosen & permission is granted for its use.

    *Some studies purpose is to develop a new measurement instrument & to test it.

    *Whether the study uses an existing tool or develops a new one the researcher decides how the tool will be applied to the subjects.

    *The researcher now considers consistency of data collection.
  6. Consistency
    inter rater reliability 
    *Consistency refers to the state of data that are collected from each subject in the study in exactly the same way or as close to the same way as possible.

    *Consistency ↓bias and ↑generalizability or external validity of findings.

    *Inter rater reliability refers to the consistency of observations between 2 or more observers. It is expressed as a %.

    • *A researcher may not go into detail about how an
    • instrument is used in the data collection phase & the consumer may need to investigate the instrument on their own.
  7. How does a researcher measure data???
  8. 1. Physiological
    *Biological & physical indicators of health

    Blood pressure

    Heart rate

    HgbA1c

    T3, T4

    *Psychosocial variables

    Anxiety

    Hope

    Adjustment

    Quality of life
  9. 2. Complex environmental: observation
    4 criteria for scientific observation
    4 role of observer 
    Observations must be scientific which put emphasis on the objective.

    • To be considered scientific observation 4 criteria must
    • be present

    • 1. Observations undertaken are consistent with the
    • study's objectives & theoretical frameworks.

    • 2. There must be a standardized & systematic plan
    • for observation & recording of data.

    3. All observations are checked & controlled.

    4. The observations are related to scientific concepts & theories.

    • Role of observer
    • The observer determines the extent of interaction between themselves & those they are observing.

    *There are 4 observational roles:

    1. Concealment without intervention.

    2. Concealment with intervention.

    3. No concealment without intervention.

    4. No concealment with intervention.

     
  10. 3. Self report
    survey/questionnairs
    interview
    *Interviews can be face to face or telephone.

    • *Questionnaires
    • are paper/pencil or computerized & are used to gather the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs & feelings of participants. Questions used can be of various types:

    1. Open-ended: participants use their own words.

    • 2. Close-ended which have fixed number
    • of responses. Types:

    Likert-type scales: strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree.

    True/False

    Semantic differential Good 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Bad

    Interviews

    *Disadvantage:

    *Can be costly to hire interviewers.

    *Can be in a group or individual.

    *Much work to analyze data.

    *Advantage:

    *Allows the researcher to ask for clarity or more depth.

    *Response rate is always high which aids in ↓bias.

    *Easier for participants who cannot fill out a questionnaire.

    • *The interviewer is aware of who is providing the
    • answers.

    *Interviewer can change the order of the questions.

    *Allows for richer & more complex data to be collected.

    Questionnaires 

    *Disadvantages:

    *Can be costly if the sample is large.

    *Low response rates.

    *Time consuming to analyze large amounts of data.

    *Tend to be general & lack depth of a concept.

    *Advantages:

    *Can reach a large number of people.

    *Reminders can be sent out again if response rate is low.

    *A large variety of data can be collected.

    *Data can be used for a variety of purposes re: more than one study can utilize the same data set.

    *Computerized methods have a low cost & ↑flexibility for participants.


  11. Critiquing Criteria
    *Is the framework clearly identified?

    *Are the data collection methods clear?

    *Are all instruments identified?

    *Is the method used appropriate?

    *Were the collection procedures similar for all subjects?

    *Could you replicate the data collection?

    *Was intervention fidelity ensured? How?

    *Were precautions taken to prevent bias?
  12. Review
  13. Baccalaureate prepared nruses are _____ of research
    consumers
  14. _______ methods use technical instruments to collect data about a clinet's physical, chemical, microbiological, or anatomical status
    physiological
  15. _____is the distortion of data as a result of the observer's presence
    reactivity
  16. ____are best used when a large response rate and an unbiased sample are important
    interviews
  17. data collection with___is subject to problems of availability, authenticity, and accuracy
    records
  18. ____measurements are especially useful when there are a finite number of questions to be asked and the questions are clear and specific
    questionnaires
  19. essential in the critique of data collection methods is the emphasis on the appropriateness, ____,and _____ of the method used
    objectivity, consistency
  20. _____raises ethical questions (esp. issues of informed consent); therefore, it's not often used in nursing
    concealment
  21. ______ _______ is the process of translating concepts or variables into measurable phenomena
    interater reliability
  22. ____is the process of translating concepts or variables into measurable phenomena
    operizalization
  23. the ___ _____ is a format that uses close-ended items, and there are a fixed number of alternative responses
    likert scale
  24. ___ _____ is the method for objective, systematic, and quantitative descriptions of communications and documentary evidence
    content analysis
  25. what's the primary advantage of physiological measures?
    objective, sensitive, and precise
  26. self-report measures are usually more useful than observation measures in obtaining info about which of the following?
    socially unacceptable or private behaviors
  27. which of the following would be considered the disadvantages of using observational data collection methods?
    • -individual bias may interfere with data collection
    • -ethical concerns may become increasingly significant
    • -individual judgements and values influence the perceptions of the observers
    •  
  28. in nursing research, when might questionnaires be an appropriate method for data collection?
    • -whenever expense is a concern for the researcher
    • -when a researcher is interested in obtaining info directly from the subjects
    • -when the researcher needs to collect data from a large group of subjects who are not easily accessed 
  29. which of the following is an advantage of using existing records or available data to answer a research question?
    • -use of available data reduces the risk of researcher bias in data collection
    • -the time needed for the research study can be reduced
    • -the consistent collection of info over time allows the researcher to study trends

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