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What is an ideally dilute solution?
- 1. Both solute & solvent have similar properties
- 2. Solute molecules are separated from one another by being surrounded completely by solvent molecules
What are colloids?
- 1. Type of solution
- 2. CANNOT be separated by filtration
- 3. Scatter light
- 4. Solute particles do not settle out of solution
How can colloids be separated?
- 1. Dialysis (i.e. use of semipermeable membrane)
- 2. Charge separation
- 3. Filtration AFTER heating
What happens when colloids are heated?
Solute particles coagulate and can be separated via filtration
What bonds are implicated in polar vs. nonpolar solutions?
Non-polar: London Dispersion Forces
Is water a good conductor of electricity?
Not normally, but when it contains electrolytes it is
List five ways to measure 
- 1. Molarity
- 2. Molality
- 3. Mole fraction
- 4. Mass percentage
- 5. Parts per million
3 Steps in forming a solution
- 1. Breaking intermolecular bonds between solute molecules (+H)
- 2. Breaking intermolecular bonds between solvent molecules (H+)
- 3. Making intermolecular bonds between solute and solvent molecules (-H)
What happens to entropy when solutions form?
Entropy always increases when solutions form
What is a nonvolatile solute?
- 1. Does not contribute to vapor pressure
- 2. Consumes surface area of liquid and thus, reduces vapor pressure by limiting the amount of solvent molecules that can escape into a gas -- so affects the overall vapor pressure of the solution, but indirectly
What is a volatile solute?
- 1. Contributes to a solution's vapor pressure
- 2. Competes for the surface area
*Sum of partial pressure of each contributor of solution will give total vapor pressure of the solution
Deviation from Raoult's law for a non-ideal solution
If Hsoln is negative: stronger bonds have been formed so vapor pressure will be lower than predicted
If Hsoln is positive: weaker bonds have formed so vapor pressure will be higher than predicted
What is the opposite of dissolution?
Rate of dissolution = Rate of percipitation
Adding any more solute will form a percipitate
Equilibrium of a solvation reaction
Ksp ; same as Keq except specialized to a solution ; called the solubility product
This is a constant value that can be found in a book
Remember to leave out pure solids and liquids
Changes with temperature ONLY
What is Solubility?
The solubility of something in a given solvent
AKA the maximum number of moles that can dissolve in a solution
Changes with temperature and ions present
What are spectator ions?
Ions in a solution that have no effect on the equilibrium constant AKA the solubility product
How are the  of the solute and solvent in a saturated soln?
A saturated solution is at equilibrium, meaning that the maximum moles of solute have been able to dissolve in the given solvent.
1. The  of solute is at a maximum, any more solute added would push this reaction backwards and percipitate will form
2. The  of the solvent is at a minimum because the solute's  is maximized
Partial pressures always add up to give total pressure
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