Solutions

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Author:
hellosleepy
ID:
159364
Filename:
Solutions
Updated:
2012-06-19 15:06:58
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MCAT
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Description:
MCAT General Chemistry
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  1. What is an ideally dilute solution?
    • 1. Both solute & solvent have similar properties 
    • 2. Solute molecules are separated from one another by being surrounded completely by solvent molecules  
  2. What are colloids?
    • 1. Type of solution 
    • 2. CANNOT be separated by filtration
    • 3. Scatter light
    • 4. Solute particles do not settle out of solution  
  3. How can colloids be separated?
    • 1. Dialysis (i.e. use of semipermeable membrane)
    • 2. Charge separation
    • 3. Filtration AFTER heating  
  4. What happens when colloids are heated?
    Solute particles coagulate and can be separated via filtration 
  5. What bonds are implicated in polar vs. nonpolar solutions?
    Polar: dipole-dipole

    Non-polar: London Dispersion Forces  
  6. Is water a good conductor of electricity?
    Not normally, but when it contains electrolytes it is 
  7. List five ways to measure []
    • 1. Molarity 
    • 2. Molality
    • 3. Mole fraction
    • 4. Mass percentage
    • 5. Parts per million  
  8. 3 Steps in forming a solution 
    • 1. Breaking intermolecular bonds between solute molecules (+H)
    • 2. Breaking intermolecular bonds between solvent molecules (H+)
    • 3. Making intermolecular bonds between solute and solvent molecules (-H)
  9. What happens to entropy when solutions form?
     
    Entropy always increases when solutions form 
  10. What is a nonvolatile solute?
    • 1. Does not contribute to vapor pressure
    • 2. Consumes surface area of liquid and thus, reduces vapor pressure by limiting the amount of solvent molecules that can escape into a gas -- so affects the overall vapor pressure of the solution, but indirectly 
  11. What is a volatile solute?
    • 1. Contributes to a solution's vapor pressure
    • 2. Competes for the surface area

    *Sum of partial pressure of each contributor of solution will give total vapor pressure of the solution 
  12. Deviation from Raoult's law for a non-ideal solution 
    If Hsoln is negative: stronger bonds have been formed so vapor pressure will be lower than predicted 

    If Hsoln is positive: weaker bonds have formed so vapor pressure will be higher than predicted 
  13. What is the opposite of dissolution?
    Percipitation 
  14. Saturated solution
    Rate of dissolution = Rate of percipitation 

    Adding any more solute will form a percipitate
  15. Equilibrium of a solvation reaction
    Ksp ; same as Keq except specialized to a solution ; called the solubility product 

    This is a constant value that can be found in a book 

    Remember to leave out pure solids and liquids

    Changes with temperature ONLY
  16. What is Solubility?
    The solubility of something in a given solvent 

    AKA the maximum number of moles that can dissolve in a solution

    Changes with temperature and ions present 
  17. What are spectator ions?
    Ions in a solution that have no effect on the equilibrium constant AKA the solubility product 
  18. How are the [] of the solute and solvent in a saturated soln?
    A saturated solution is at equilibrium, meaning that the maximum moles of solute have been able to dissolve in the given solvent. 

    1. The [] of solute is at a maximum, any more solute added would push this reaction backwards and percipitate will form

    2. The [] of the solvent is at a minimum because the solute's [] is maximized
  19. Partial pressures always add up to give total pressure 

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